TestCafe vs Selenium : Which is better?

In the realm of web testing frameworks, TestCafe and Selenium stand out for their unique approaches to automation testing. TestCafe, a Node.js tool, offers a straightforward setup and testing process without requiring WebDriver.

Its appeal lies in its ability to run tests on any browser that supports HTML5, including headless browsers, directly without plugins or additional tools.

On the other hand, Selenium, a veteran in the field, is renowned for its extensive browser support and compatibility with multiple programming languages, making it a staple in diverse testing scenarios.

This comparison delves into their technical nuances, assessing their capabilities, ease of use, and flexibility to determine which framework better suits specific testing needs.

Firstly, we’ll understand the role of both automation tools and later see a quick comparison between them.

All About TestCafe

Developed by DevExpress, TestCafe offers a robust and comprehensive solution for automating web testing without relying on WebDriver or any other external plugins.

It provides a user-friendly and flexible API that simplifies the process of writing and maintaining test scripts. Some of its key features include:

  1. Cross-browser Testing: TestCafe allows you to test web applications across multiple browsers simultaneously, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge, without any browser plugins.
  2. Easy Setup: With TestCafe, there’s no need for WebDriver setup or additional browser drivers. You can get started with testing right away by simply installing TestCafe via npm.
  3. Automatic Waiting: TestCafe automatically waits for page elements to appear, eliminating the need for explicit waits or sleep statements in your test scripts. This makes tests more robust and reliable.
  4. Built-in Test Runner: TestCafe comes with a built-in test runner that provides real-time feedback during test execution, including detailed logs and screenshots for failed tests.
  5. Support for Modern Web Technologies: TestCafe supports the testing of web applications built with modern technologies such as React, Angular, Vue.js, and more, out of the box.


Read About:Learn How to Use Testcafe For Creating Testcases Just Like That

Installation of TestCafe

Installing TestCafe is straightforward, thanks to its Node.js foundation. Before you begin, ensure you have Node.js (including npm) installed on your system.

If you haven’t installed Node.js yet, download and install it from the official Node.js website.

Here are the steps to install TestCafe:

Step 1: Open a Terminal or Command Prompt

Open your terminal (on macOS or Linux) or command prompt/powershell (on Windows).

Step 2: Install TestCafe Using npm

Run the following command to install TestCafe globally on your machine. Installing it globally allows you to run TestCafe from any directory in your terminal or command prompt.

npm install -g testcafe

Step 3: Verify Installation

To verify that TestCafe has been installed correctly, you can run the following command to check its version:

testcafe -v

If the installation was successful, you will see the version number of TestCafe output to your terminal or command prompt.

Step 4: Run Your First Test

With TestCafe installed, you can now run tests. Here’s a quick command to run an example test on Google Chrome. This command tells TestCafe to use Google Chrome to open a website and check if the title contains a specific text.

testcafe chrome test_file.js

Replace test_file.js with the path to your test file.


  • If you encounter any permissions issues during installation, you might need to prepend sudo to the install command (for macOS/Linux) or run your command prompt or PowerShell as an administrator (for Windows).
  • TestCafe allows you to run tests in most modern browsers installed on your local machine or on remote devices without requiring WebDriver or any other testing software.

That’s it! You’ve successfully installed TestCafe and are ready to start automating your web testing.

How To Run Tests In TestCafe

Running tests with TestCafe is straightforward and does not require WebDriver or any other testing software. Here’s how you can run tests in TestCafe:

1. Write Your Test

Before running tests, you need to have a test file. TestCafe tests are written in JavaScript or TypeScript. Here’s a simple example of a TestCafe test script (test1.js) that navigates to Google and checks the title:

import { Selector } from 'testcafe';

fixture `Getting Started`
.page `https://www.google.com`;

test(‘My first test’, async t => {
await t

2. Run the Test

Open your terminal (or Command Prompt/PowerShell on Windows) and navigate to the directory containing your test file.

To run the test in a specific browser, use the following command:

testcafe chrome test1.js

Replace chrome with the name of any browser you have installed (e.g., firefox, safari, edge). You can also run tests in multiple browsers by separating the browser names with commas:

testcafe chrome,firefox test1.js

3. Running Tests on Remote Devices

TestCafe allows you to run tests on remote devices. To do this, use the remote keyword:

testcafe remote test1.js

TestCafe will provide a URL that you need to open in the browser on your remote device. The test will start running as soon as you open the link.

4. Running Tests in Headless Mode

For browsers that support headless mode (like Chrome and Firefox), you can run tests without the UI:

testcafe chrome:headless test1.js

5. Additional Options

TestCafe provides various command-line options to customize test runs, such as specifying a file or directory, running tests in parallel, or specifying a custom reporter. Use the --help option to see all available commands:

testcafe --help

Example: Running Tests in Parallel

To run tests in parallel in three instances of Chrome, use:

testcafe -c 3 chrome test1.js

All About Selenium

Selenium provides a suite of tools and libraries for automating web browsers across various platforms. Selenium WebDriver, the core component of Selenium, allows testers to write scripts in multiple programming languages such as Java, Python, C#, and JavaScript. I

ts key features include:

  1. Cross-browser and Cross-platform Testing: Like TestCafe, Selenium supports cross-browser testing across different web browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.
  2. Large Community Support: Selenium has a large and active community of developers and testers who contribute to its development, provide support, and share best practices.
  3. Flexibility: Selenium offers flexibility in terms of programming language and framework choice. You can write test scripts using your preferred programming language and integrate Selenium with popular testing frameworks such as JUnit, TestNG, and NUnit.
  4. Integration with Third-party Tools: Selenium can be easily integrated with various third-party tools and services such as Sauce Labs, BrowserStack, and Docker for cloud-based testing, parallel testing, and containerized testing.
  5. Support for Mobile Testing: Selenium Grid allows you to perform automated testing of web applications on mobile devices and emulators, making it suitable for mobile testing as well.

How To Install Selenium

Installing Selenium involves setting up the Selenium WebDriver, which allows you to automate browser actions for testing purposes.

The setup process varies depending on the programming language you’re using (e.g., Java, Python, C#, etc.) and the browsers you intend to automate. Below is a general guide to get you started with Selenium in Java and Python, two of the most common languages used with Selenium.

For Java

Install Java Development Kit (JDK):

  • Ensure you have the JDK installed on your system. If not, download and install it from the official Oracle website or use OpenJDK.
  • Set up the JAVA_HOME environment variable to point to your JDK installation.

Install an IDE (Optional):

  • While not required, an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse can make coding and managing your project easier.

Download Selenium WebDriver:

Add Selenium WebDriver to Your Project:

  • If using an IDE, create a new project and add the Selenium JAR files to your project’s build path.
  • For Maven projects, add the Selenium dependency to your pom.xml file:

For Python

Install Python:

  • Ensure Python is installed on your system. If not, download and install it from the official Python website.
  • Make sure to add Python to your system’s PATH during installation.

Install Selenium WebDriver:

  • Open your terminal (Command Prompt or PowerShell on Windows, Terminal on macOS and Linux).
  • Run the following command to install Selenium using pip, Python’s package installer:
pip install selenium

Browser Drivers

Regardless of the language, you will need to download browser-specific drivers to communicate with your chosen browser (e.g., ChromeDriver for Google Chrome, geckodriver for Firefox). Here’s how to set them up:

Download Browser Drivers:

Set Up the Driver:

  • Extract the downloaded driver to a known location on your system.
  • Add the driver’s location to your system’s PATH environment variable.

Verify Installation

To verify that Selenium is installed correctly, you can write a simple script that opens a web browser:

For Java

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
public class SeleniumTest {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.setProperty(“webdriver.chrome.driver”, “PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER”);
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

For Python

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=‘PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER’)

Replace PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER with the actual path to your ChromeDriver.

This guide should help you get started with Selenium. Remember, the exact steps may vary based on your development environment and the browsers you want to automate.

Also Read : Why is TestNG Awesome? Advantages of Integrating it with Selenium

Comparison Between TestCafe And Selenium

Feature TestCafe Selenium
Language Support JavaScript, TypeScript Java, C#, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, Kotlin, PHP
Browser Support Runs on any browser that supports HTML5. Includes support for headless browsers and mobile browsers via device emulators. Wide range of browsers including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, and Edge. Requires additional drivers for each browser.
WebDriver Requirement Does not require WebDriver or any external dependencies. Requires WebDriver to interact with web browsers.
Installation and Setup Simple setup with no dependencies other than Node.js. Easily installed via npm. More complex setup due to the need for installing WebDriver for each browser.
Test Execution Executes tests directly in the browser using a server. Can run tests on remote devices. Communicates with browsers through the WebDriver protocol.
Parallel Test Execution Built-in support for running tests concurrently across multiple browsers or devices. Supports parallel test execution with additional tools like Selenium Grid or third-party frameworks.
Cross-Browser Testing Simplified cross-browser testing without additional configurations. Requires configuration and setup for each WebDriver to enable cross-browser testing.
Integration with CI/CD Easy integration with popular CI/CD tools like Jenkins, TeamCity, Travis CI, and GitLab CI. Broad support for integration with various CI/CD systems.
Mobile Testing Supports mobile testing through device emulation in browsers. Supports real mobile devices and emulators through Appium integration.
Record and Replay Provides a feature to record actions in the browser and generate test code (with TestCafe Studio). Third-party tools and plugins are required for record and replay capabilities.
Community and Support Active community with support available through forums and chat. Commercial support is available through DevExpress for TestCafe Studio. Very large and active community with extensive resources, forums, and documentation.
Use Case Ideal for teams looking for a quick setup and easy JavaScript/TypeScript integration. Best suited for projects that require extensive language support and integration with various browser drivers and mobile testing through Appium.

Conclusion: Which one is Better? Based On Our Experience.

Both TestCafe and Selenium offer powerful capabilities for web testing, but the choice between them depends on specific project requirements, such as the preferred programming language, ease of setup, browser support, and testing environment complexity.

TestCafe might be more appealing for projects that prioritize ease of use and quick setup, while Selenium provides greater flexibility and language support, making it suitable for more complex automation tasks that may involve a wider range of browsers and integration with mobile testing frameworks like Appium.

11 Awesome Selenium Alternatives For Testers

Selenium is a suite of open-source tools mainly used to test web applications. It works as an API for browser automation. Selenium testing is clearly the most prevalent approach for QA testing, giving the capacity to make custom test automation situations that outfit an assortment of browsers and languages. Selenium is indeed good; is there any selenium competitors or selenium-like tools in the market?

Why Do People Use Selenium Web Testing Framework?

The Selenium Web Testing Framework is becoming increasingly popular as a choice among testers for a number of good reasons.

The Selenium Web Testing Framework is so popular among testers because it’s very flexible, compatible across different browsers, supports multiple programming languages, and, most of all, is an open-source tool.

It allows testers to write their scripts in languages like Java, Python, and C#, which makes integrating Selenium with other tools a breeze.

With Selenium, one can test web applications across different browsers and platforms, ensuring the test coverage is comprehensive.

The fact that there’s strong community support for this framework and regular updates are released contributes even more to its popularity.

For all of these reasons and more, the Selenium Web Testing Framework remains the preferred choice as a leading tool for automatic website testing in a variety of different environments.

Pros and Cons of Selenium Test Automation

Pros Cons
Free and Open Source: No licensing fees, accessible to everyone. Requires development skills: Scripting knowledge needed for test creation.
Cross-browser and platform compatibility: Tests can run on different browsers and operating systems. Maintenance intensive: Scripts need updating as applications evolve.
Flexible and customizable: Adapts to specific testing needs with various frameworks and libraries. Steep learning curve: Initial setup and framework understanding require time and effort.
Extensive community and resources: Abundant documentation, tutorials, and support available online. Limited support for non-web applications: Not suitable for desktop or mobile app testing.
Promotes faster regression testing: Automates repetitive tasks, freeing up time for exploratory testing. Can be fragile: Test scripts might break with UI changes, requiring adjustments.
Improves test coverage: Enables running more tests than manual testing allows. Not a silver bullet: Doesn’t replace manual testing entirely, best used in combination.
Integrates with CI/CD pipelines: Automates testing as part of the development process. Can be slow to develop tests: Scripting can be time-consuming compared to record-and-playback tools.

What Makes People Search for Alternatives to Selenium?

  • Complex Setup and Configuration: Selenium can require a significant amount of setup and configuration, especially for beginners or those unfamiliar with programming concepts.
  • Limited Support for Non-Web Applications: Selenium is primarily designed for web applications, and users working with desktop or mobile applications might seek more suitable tools.
  • Requires Strong Programming Skills: Writing tests in Selenium necessitates a good grasp of programming, which can be a barrier for non-technical testers or those looking for a simpler, no-code solution.
  • No Built-In Test Management and Reporting: Selenium lacks built-in features for test management and reporting, requiring integration with third-party tools, which can complicate the testing process.
  • Browser Compatibility Issues: While Selenium supports multiple browsers, maintaining cross-browser compatibility can be challenging due to the frequent updates of web browsers.
  • Performance and Scalability Issues: Some users may encounter performance bottlenecks with Selenium, especially when dealing with large test suites or requiring high concurrency in test execution.
  • Limited Support for Visual Testing: Selenium does not natively support visual testing (UI testing that involves comparing screenshots of web pages), which is crucial for ensuring UI consistency across different devices and screen sizes.
  • Community Support Variability: Although Selenium has a large community, the quality and timeliness of support can vary, leading users to seek tools with more reliable or official support channels.
  • Looking for More Comprehensive Solutions: Users may seek alternatives that offer a more integrated approach, including features like test creation, management, execution, and reporting in a single platform.
  • Interest in Latest Technologies: With the rapid advancement in AI and machine learning, testers are exploring new tools that incorporate these technologies for smarter, more efficient testing processes.

Applications have turned out to be progressively intricate in recent years, particularly with the utilization of prominent JavaScript structures, for example, Angular.js, React.js, Vue.js, and Ember.js for developing web applications; Selenium has assumed it to be challenging to adjust to these advances.

But there is no need to panic as there are great alternatives to Selenium available in the market. Here is our list of the

11 Best Alternatives to Selenium for the Year 2024.

#1. Robot Framework

Features Of Robot Framework

  • Robot Framework is an open-source automation framework without licensing costs, supported by the Robot Framework Foundation.
  • It is designed to be open and extensible, allowing for integration with virtually any tool for powerful automation solutions.
  • Supports libraries implemented with Python, Java, or many other programming languages to extend its capabilities.
  • Operates across different platforms and environments, featuring an easy syntax with human-readable keywords for test cases.
  • It boasts a rich ecosystem of libraries and tools developed as separate projects, surrounded by a vibrant community offering support and contributions.
  • Suitable for both test automation and robotic process automation (RPA), offering comprehensive documentation for users at all levels.
  • Continuously developed with regular additions of new features and improvements.
  • Integration-friendly, seamlessly working with CI/CD tools like Jenkins and version control systems like Git.
  • Offers versatile testing capabilities, including acceptance testing, end-to-end testing, API testing, and more.
  • It comes with various built-in tools and libraries for immediate use in testing activities.
  • Allows for the creation of custom libraries to extend functionality further and adapt to specific testing needs.
  • Generates detailed reports and logs for in-depth analysis of test runs and features easy installation via package managers.
  • Enables real browser testing through libraries like SeleniumLibrary, and supports mobile application testing with libraries such as AppiumLibrary.
  • Capable of testing web services and APIs with dedicated libraries and allows for desktop application testing, showcasing its wide-ranging automation capabilities.

Cons Of Robot Framework

  • Performance may decrease with large test suites.
  • Non-developers might find a steep learning curve.
  • Requires external libraries for advanced testing.
  • UI testing can be less intuitive compared to specialized tools.
  • Debugging capabilities are limited.
  • Extensive documentation can be overwhelming for new users.
  • Integrating with modern DevOps tools may need extra setup.
  • Mobile and desktop testing require additional libraries.
  • Quality and speed of community support can vary.
  • Limited visual testing capabilities without extra libraries or solutions.

Also Read:- TestCafe vs Selenium: Which is better?

#2. Cypress

Cypress is a newly launched test automation framework that contributes another way forward. Cypress is a feature-rich tool that is entirely open source, with the exception of the dashboard application, and it is undeniably more strictly regulated by current development practices and devices than Selenium.


  • Cypress offers real-time reloads, updating tests automatically with script changes.
  • Features “Time Travel” for viewing test states at each step, aiding debugging.
  • Automates waiting for commands and assertions to be completed, reducing flaky tests.
  • Allows control, stubbing, and testing of network traffic for in-depth testing scenarios.
  • Executes tests directly in the browser for consistent results.
  • Captures screenshots of failures and records videos of test runs for detailed analysis.
  • Supports cross-browser testing, including Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and Electron.
  • Provides an intuitive dashboard for detailed insights into test runs and debugging.
  • Handles both unit and end-to-end testing, making it versatile for web application testing.
  • Seamlessly integrates with CI tools for fitting into automated testing pipelines.
  • Supported by a strong community and comprehensive documentation.


  • Cypress has historically had limited browser support, focusing primarily on Chrome, though it has recently expanded to include Firefox and Edge.
  • It does not support testing scenarios that require interacting with multiple browser tabs simultaneously.
  • Cypress does not natively support running tests across multiple browsers in parallel.
  • Cypress tests can only be written in JavaScript, limiting flexibility for teams using other programming languages.
  • Some users report slower performance with very large test suites, affecting test execution time.
  • Testing content inside iFrames can be more complex and challenging with Cypress.
  • It is specifically designed for web application testing and may not be suitable for desktop or mobile applications.
  • New users, especially those not familiar with JavaScript, may experience a learning curve when getting started with Cypress.

#3. Katalon Studio

One more effective alternative to Selenium is Katalon Studio. It integrated the ground-breaking programming of the Selenium system to accommodate a very well-planned GUI, and the outcome is an amazing test automation system.


  • Katalon Studio offers a comprehensive test automation solution for web, mobile, API, and desktop applications.
  • It supports codeless and scripted modes, making it accessible to users of all technical levels.
  • Integrates seamlessly with popular CI/CD tools like Jenkins, TeamCity, and Bamboo for automated testing pipelines.
  • Provides built-in support for behavior-driven development (BDD) with features for writing and managing Gherkin test cases.
  • Offers a centralized platform for managing test cases, test execution results, and project artifacts.
  • Features an intelligent object repository and an object spy tool for efficient object management and identification.
  • Includes a powerful test recording feature that simplifies the process of creating automated tests.
  • Supports data-driven testing, allowing users to execute tests with various data sets easily.
  • Facilitates collaboration among team members with its project sharing and version control capabilities.
  • Katalon Studio integrates with Jira, qTest, and other ALM tools for enhanced project management and tracking.
  • Provides advanced reporting and analytics features for detailed insights into test execution and outcomes.
  • Users can extend the functionality of Katalon Studio with custom plugins from the Katalon Store or by developing their own.



  • Katalon Studio’s extensive feature set can overwhelm beginners, presenting a steep learning curve.
  • The free version has limitations, requiring a paid subscription for full access to advanced features and capabilities.
  • Performance can be slower with large test suites or complex test scenarios, impacting test execution time.
  • Some users report occasional stability issues, especially when working with extensive or complex projects.
  • Integration with certain third-party tools and systems may require additional configuration or workarounds.
  • The codeless automation approach, while accessible, may not offer the same level of flexibility and control as custom scripting for more advanced testing needs.
  • Reports generated in the free version may lack the depth and customization options available in the paid version.
  • While it supports both web and desktop applications, mobile testing capabilities might not be as comprehensive as dedicated mobile testing tools.
  • Custom plugins or extensions may be necessary to meet specific testing requirements, adding complexity to the setup.
  • The community and support resources, though extensive, may not always provide immediate solutions to less common issues or advanced use cases.

#4. Screenster

Screenster gives visual User Interface test automation to web applications. It is the single device that approves the screens which users really see. While recording a UI test, Screenster breaks down the DOM and matches individual UI components to their performance on the screen. Thus, a tester can confirm each on-page component.


  • Offers visual regression testing, automatically detecting UI changes and anomalies.
  • Provides a cloud-based platform, eliminating the need for local setup and maintenance.
  • Enables automated test recording by capturing actions in the browser without writing code.
  • Supports testing across different browsers and devices to ensure consistent UI experiences.
  • Integrates baseline management, allowing easy review and approval of visual changes.
  • Facilitates team collaboration with shared test projects and results.
  • Generates detailed reports highlighting visual differences with screenshots.
  • Allows for easy test maintenance by updating baselines and reusing tests across projects.


  • Visual testing can generate false positives due to minor and inconsequential visual differences.
  • May require manual review of test results to confirm genuine issues versus expected UI changes.
  • Limited to web applications, not suitable for testing non-web-based software or mobile applications natively.
  • Dependence on cloud infrastructure might raise concerns for teams with strict data security or privacy requirements.
  • Could be less flexible for complex test scenarios that go beyond UI comparison.
  • Pricing model may not fit all budgets, especially for small teams or individual developers.
  • Learning curve for users unfamiliar with visual regression testing concepts and best practices.
  • Integration with existing test suites or CI/CD pipelines may require additional setup.

#5. CasperJS

CasperJS is an open-source, quick, lightweight, and simple-to-configure testing utility and navigation scripting embedded in CoffeeScript or JavaScript for PhantomJS and SlimerJS.

The tool has the capability of testing the page status, functional navigation, scrapping information off the website page, and also automatically checking network traffic.


  • Enables automated navigation scripting for web applications, simplifying the process of defining and executing navigation scenarios.
  • Facilitates the creation of automated tests, including functional and regression tests, for web applications.
  • Offers detailed event logging and screenshot capture capabilities to assist in debugging and test verification.
  • Supports headless browser testing through PhantomJS, allowing tests to run without a graphical user interface for faster execution.
  • Provides a straightforward syntax for writing test scripts, making it accessible for developers and testers with JavaScript knowledge.
  • Allows for page scraping and automation tasks, making it useful for web scraping projects in addition to testing.
  • Capable of simulating multiple user interactions with web pages, including clicking links, filling out forms, and capturing the resulting changes.
  • Integrates with other tools and frameworks for continuous integration and testing workflows.


  • As development has been suspended, the tool may not receive updates, bug fixes, or support for newer web technologies and standards.
  • Limited to PhantomJS (also no longer actively maintained) or SlimerJS for browser environments, which may not reflect the latest browser behaviors accurately.
  • Lacks native support for testing across multiple real browsers, limiting its effectiveness in cross-browser testing scenarios.
  • The scripting approach can become cumbersome for very complex applications or tests that require extensive setup and teardown.
  • Users may encounter challenges integrating CasperJS with modern JavaScript frameworks and libraries due to its suspension and the rapid evolution of web technologies.
  • The community support and resources may dwindle over time, making it harder for new users to find help or existing users to solve emerging issues.
  • May not be the best choice for projects that prioritize long-term maintenance and compatibility with future web standards.

#6. Watir

Watir is an open-source and free tool launched under the license of BSD. As the test scripts are written in Ruby, it is simple to adapt, particularly for Ruby designers.

Also, because the Ruby language is very brief, the tests made utilizing the Waitr tool are not at all difficult to create and upgrade. Along these lines, the long-term upkeep of the test suits requires less overhead.

Further, Watir’s web driver is based on the WebDriver system, which can drive the most famous systems out there, making Watir utterly usable with numerous browsers.


  • Open-source Ruby library for automating web browsers, offering a powerful tool for web application testing.
  • Supports multiple browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari, directly through their respective drivers.
  • Enables interaction with web elements in a way that mimics human actions, such as clicking buttons, filling out forms, and navigating through pages.
  • Allows for the execution of tests on real browsers, ensuring that applications work as expected in real-world scenarios.
  • Integrates easily with testing frameworks like RSpec, Cucumber, and Test::Unit, allowing for the development of readable and maintainable test code.
  • Provides support for headless browser testing, enabling tests to run faster and in environments without a graphical interface.
  • Facilitates cross-browser testing, helping ensure that web applications function correctly across different browser types and versions.
  • It features a simple and intuitive API, making it accessible for beginners and experienced testers.


  • Primarily focused on web applications, with limited capabilities for testing non-web or mobile applications.
  • Being a Ruby library, it might not be the preferred choice for teams working primarily in other programming languages.
  • Some users might find the setup and configuration process challenging, especially when integrating with various browsers and driver versions.
  • The performance of tests can be affected by the speed and stability of the web browsers being automated.
  • Requires a good understanding of Ruby for writing more complex test scripts or extending the framework’s capabilities.
  • Like any open-source project, the speed and availability of updates and new features can depend on the community and contributors.

#7. Cucumber

Cucumber removes any barrier between non-technical and technical project personnel.

Fundamentally, that is the crucial element of its mystery sauce. Actually, cucumber can go about as a selenium alternative or perform in pairs with selenium.


  • Supports Behavior-Driven development (BDD), allowing the creation of test cases in plain English, making them understandable to non-technical stakeholders.
  • Enables writing of specifications using Gherkin language, which is highly readable and serves as living documentation for the project.
  • Integrates with various programming languages including Ruby, Java, and JavaScript, making it versatile across different development environments.
  • Facilitates collaboration between developers, QA teams, and business analysts by using language that is easy to understand for all parties involved.
  • Offers support for various testing frameworks such as RSpec, Test::Unit, and JUnit, allowing for flexible test execution.
  • Provides detailed reports on test execution, making it easier to identify and address failures.
  • Supports scenario outlines and examples, enabling parameterized testing for covering multiple scenarios with a single test case.
  • Can be integrated into CI/CD pipelines, enhancing continuous testing practices.


  • The abstraction layer introduced by Gherkin can sometimes lead to misunderstandings if not accurately expressed, affecting test accuracy.
  • Writing and maintaining step definitions requires additional effort, potentially slowing the development process.
  • The initial setup and learning curve can be steep for teams unfamiliar with BDD or Gherkin syntax.
  • Overusing Cucumber for simple unit tests that don’t benefit from BDD might lead to unnecessary complexity.
  • Requires diligent management of feature files and step definitions to avoid duplication and keep tests maintainable.
  • The performance of test suites can be slower compared to direct unit testing, especially for large projects.
  • Balancing the granularity of scenarios to be neither too broad nor too detailed can be challenging and time-consuming.
  • Dependency on the active involvement of business stakeholders to reap the full benefits of BDD may not always be feasible.

#8. Ghost Inspector

Ghost Inspector is a browser-based framework that works through a Chrome plugin. This tool is a Selenium IDE alternative that appears to get record/playback best in Ghost Inspector.


  • Offers easy creation of automated browser tests without the need for coding, using a Chrome extension for recording actions.
  • Allows tests to run in the cloud, eliminating the need for local test execution environments and infrastructure.
  • Provides immediate visual feedback by comparing screenshots of test runs, helping to catch UI changes or errors quickly.
  • Integrates with popular CI/CD tools and services like Jenkins, CircleCI, and GitHub for seamless automation workflows.
  • Supports the scheduling of tests to run automatically at specified intervals, ensuring regular monitoring of web applications.
  • Includes detailed reports and notifications for test outcomes via email, Slack, and other channels, keeping teams informed.
  • Offers a dashboard for managing tests, organizing them into suites, and tracking historical test results and trends.
  • Enables testing on various screen sizes and custom environments to ensure responsiveness and compatibility across devices.
  • Facilitates team collaboration with shared access to tests and results, enhancing communication and efficiency.

Inspector Cons:

  • While powerful for UI testing, it might not be as effective for testing backend processes or non-UI-based interactions.
  • Dependency on the cloud-based platform means limited control over the test execution environment compared to local or self-hosted solutions.
  • May incur additional costs for high usage levels, as pricing is based on test execution frequency and suite sizes.
  • Learning how to effectively use the recording tool and understand the nuances of test creation can take time for new users.
  • Limited programming capabilities mean complex test logic or custom scripting might be difficult to implement compared to more code-intensive testing frameworks.
  • Managing many tests and ensuring they remain up-to-date with application changes can be challenging.
  • While it offers integrations with several CI/CD tools, setup and configuration might require a learning curve for teams new to automation


10. TestCraft

TestCraft is a codeless Selenium test automation framework. It can rapidly integrate and use modules created by the community. Its advanced AI innovation and exceptional visual modeling enable quicker test generation and performance while wiping out the test support overhead. The tool considerably decreases maintenance costs.

Testers can also make completely automated test cases without coding in them. Users discover bugs quicker, deliver all the more often, coordinate with CI/CD, and enhance the general property of their digital products.

Scripts are adapted to change automatically because of the AI mechanism. Also, a tester can make significant changes with just a couple of clicks using this tool.


11. Protractor
It is an open-source automation framework created specifically for the automation of AngularJS web applications.
The protractor is based on JavaScript Selenium WebDriver, so it supports every one of the traits that are accessible with Selenium WebDriver.
With one or two commands, both Selenium WebDriver and the testing framework will be installed pleasantly. Protractor tests the application by communicating with it as a user.

This tool is formally called an E2E,i.e. end-to-end testing structure.

The utilization of JavaScript, one of the most simple-to-use programming languages to adapt, particularly for those who have an inadequate programming background makes this tool a good alternative.

With its ‘Automatic Waiting’ element, the test executes automatically to the following stage without waiting for the test and web page to sync.

Protractor also supports tools like Cucumber, Jasmine, and Mocha to compose test suites as it is a wrapper of WebDriverJS.

It is a library for Node that automates headless Chrome or Chromium through the DevTools Protocol and gives high level API to developers. This enables the developers to perceive a web browser as an object and uses methods such as .goto () or .type (). Puppeteer is a browser- driven framework that was built and maintained by the Chrome DevTools team. Its main features are better management of Chrome, web scraping support, UI testing using screenshot and PDF capturing abilities as well as loading times measured by means of the Chrome Performance Analysis tool.

WebdriverIO is a framework that supports automated testing of modern web and mobile applications, playing the role of end-to-end testing under OpenJS Foundation. Being a NodeJS application, it performs tests in JavaScript/TypeScript. WebdriverIO is often used with WebdriverProtocol providing functions such as cross-browser testing. However, it is distinct from Cypress because of the absence of a commercial version. Important aspects of the product are an increased test suite scalability, reliability and stability testing; a flexible nature provided by built-in plugins as well as community contributions ; support for native mobile applications’ testing easy installation procedures.

Playwright is an open-sourced test automation library built by contributors of Microsoft. It is a Node.js library which automates browsers such as Chromium, Firefox and WebKit using a unified API. Playwright supports programming languages such as Java, Python and NodeJS. However the frameworks developed prefer to be in NodeJS or Javascript/Typescript tools. The major features are ease of setup and configure, the ability to support Chrome , Edge, Safari as well as Firefox in a multi-browser manner; compatibility with multiple programming languages; parallel browser testing capability on different browsers or tabs.

BrowserStack develops and maintains NightwatchJS, a Node.js framework that uses the Webdriver Protocol. This framework allows running different testing types such as End-to-End, component and visual regression tests, accessibility, API unit integration. Importantly, it is easy to extend and personalize the framework using Nightwatch. One of the major highlights is fast installation and setup. In particular, NightwatchJS test scripts are written as legible code and the framework allows for testing in different browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Edge among others.
Importantly, it expands its usability to in-house mobile app testing and hence is useful for every user. Moreover, NightwatchJS implements the page object pattern to assure better structure and test scripts’ maintainability.


We hope you like the list that we have complied.  Go through them and choose which alternative to selenium suits your needs the best

Top 7 Test Automation Companies In India

Test automation is one of the most recommended testing processes during which a special software (different from the software being tested) is used to control the execution of tests as well as the comparison of actual outcomes with expected outcomes. This process executes some of the repetitive but essential testing tasks that are already in place or performs additional testing that is difficult to be performed manually.

Test automation is an effective way to improve the development process of a software product. Capable of running fast and frequently, automated tests are cost-effective and have long maintenance life. When these tests are conducted in a lively environment, it is important that these react quickly to ever-changing software systems and requirements. There is also no restriction on adding the new test cases as these can be added in parallel to the software’s development.

app testing

A number of IT and non-IT companies are already engaged in the delivery of this process. But, with the growing demand, there are a number of other companies that are solely engaged in the delivery of test automation and so are referred to as test automation companies. This article shares with you a list of seven such companies from all these sectors:

Here is the best automation testing companies in India

1. Testbytes

Testbytes is a leading software test automation company in India which provides complete testing service, including a unique approach to testing within projects, app life-cycle management consultancy, test automation, testing mobile apps etc. The enviable track record of providing test solutions and services on time has helped them to be one of the leading testing companies in India.

Testbytes mainly focuses to improve productivity and help clients to accelerate software product development or service delivery. As part of this, the company offers top end business consulting, resourcing services and implementation. Comprised with a passionate team, Testbytes is supported by dedicated center of excellence which uses latest testing tools and cutting edge technologies. Coupled with management focus, this company is a formidable combination to guarantee value to you.

2. QA Wolf

QA Wolf simplifies automating web app testing enabling 80% test coverage within four months. They provide an automated end-to-end test suite and give round-the-clock maintenance of tests. The package also provides the advantage of free unlimited parallel test runs, without any additional costs.

Key Features:

1. Unlimited Parallel Test Runs: QA Wolf allows you to run your test suite as often as necessary with no extra cost for the number of runs.
2. 24-Hour Test Maintenance: They handle your entire test suite making sure that flaky tests are managed to prevent false positives and keep pressuring you of shipping.
3. Human-Verified Bug Reports: QA Wolf also looks at the test failure in great detail to make sure it’s a real bug. Your issue tracker receives detailed bug reports that include the steps necessary to re-produce them.
4. No Vendor Lock-In: The main advantage is that it provides no vendor lock-in. You can export your tests whenever necessary.


  • Rapid and Cost-Effective: Reach high test coverage for your web app within no time with QA Wolf’s best solution.
  • Expert QA Engineers: QA engineers from their team are responsible for the development and support of the automated test suite.
  • Unlimited Parallel Test Runs: You can run tests whenever you please without incurring extra charges.
    CI/CD Integration: Smoothly embed QA Wolf into your CI/CD workflows.
  • No Vendor Lock-In: You are not bound to a particular supplier; you can export your tests at any time.


  • No Native Mobile App Testing: Testing for native mobile apps is not supported by QA Wolf at the moment.

Also Read:- 12 Reasons To Invest in Software Testing!

3) Infosys

An Indian multinational company, Infosys Limited is a global leader in offering business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services in different parts of the world.

The test automation services offered by the company to its clients are not at all casual. These are executed to the client’s utmost satisfaction and help them ensure that the products and services delivered in the market surpass the expected quality standard.

Key Features:

1. Simultaneous Testing: It allows concurrent automated and manual testing, resulting in superior results.
2. Optimized for DevOps: Customized for DevOps, it combines progressive test cases with automated executions.
3. ROI Boost: It provides high efficiency and reduces initial costs with pre-made frameworks, optimized workflows, effective Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).
4. Thorough Validation: Allows comprehensive analysis and testing of all applications resulting in increased reliability.
5. Efficient Workflow: It allows independent testing by testers, programmers and automation experts.

6. Responsive Customer Support: Offers timely and convenient customer support through emails as well as online contact forms.


  • User-Friendly Interface: The GUI interface allows non-technical users to configure and monitor test cases easily.
  • Versatile Compatibility: Compatible with any industry-standard automation services.
  • Speeds Up Work: Employs vigorous SOPs and prefab tools/templates hastens the processes in all stages.


  • Cost Factor for SMEs: For SMEs, it might be rather costly.

4. TCS

TCS stands out as a leading test automation company, offering an Automation-as-a-Service approach, which is a game-changer compared to traditional Software-as-a-Service models. This unique setup accelerates workflow, reducing bottlenecks at all levels. The result? Faster time to market and early detection of bugs and vulnerabilities.
TCS has been a key player in the test automation scene for over 50 years, providing robust services to clients in 50+ countries. They are pioneers in technological advancements, leading in Digital Sciences, Efficient Computing, Sustainable Futures, and more.

Key Features:

1. Technology Adoption: TCS consistently embraces new technologies to empower clients with robust automation testing capabilities.
2. AI and ML Integration: Leveraging advanced AI and ML-based automation processes, TCS enhances testing methods for superior results.
3. Robust AI Engine: Their powerful AI engine generates scripts in any language by interpreting actions and identifying objects.
4. Comprehensive Testing Services: TCS offers a range of services, including bottleneck analysis, code profiling and optimization, on-demand performance testing, and more.


  • AI, ML, and AL Algorithms: TCS employs AI, ML, and Augmented Learning algorithms to enhance product delivery quality.
  • Failure Identification and Self-Healing: Capable of identifying failures and performing self-healing where possible.
  • Diverse Service Portfolio: Offers services in cybersecurity, IoT, consulting, enterprise services, sustainability, and more.


  • Customer Support: Compared to competitors, customer support responsiveness may be less optimal.

4. Accenture

Accenture is a Fortune Global 500 company that deals majorly with global management consulting and professional services. Our unmatched range of services in strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations make us capable of delivering transformational outcomes.

The testing team at Accenture assists the client companies to launch some new technology in this fast-paced world. This is owing to the testing team ability to help companies be sure of the product quality delivered by them as well as offer a seamless customer experience.


1. Specialized Testing: Easily performs special, human-driven testing in a variety of technologies.
2. Quality Control: Using a modern AI-driven and analytics approach, makes testing easier and better.
3. Modern Approach: DevOps and intelligent automation are adopted by Accenture in order to combine development testing with streamlined workflows. This forms a never ending activity where all the operations work in parallel.
4. Services Offered: Accenture offers a variety of services, such as data analytics applications service finance consulting AI marketing security automation etc.
5. End-To-End Transformation: Provides strong solutions to enable rapid alignment with contemporary Agile and DevOps practices in application development.


  • Real-Time Monitoring: Data monitoring and testing in real time, which make it easier to detect and correct results
  • Automated Approach: Takes a strong automatic approach, improving testing speeds.
  • Low-Code Automation: Facilitates the low-code automation for businesses with an approachable visual interface.


  • Not Ideal for DevOps Collaboration: It might not be the right pick for smooth collaboration with your DevOps processes.

5. Cigniti

Headquartered in Hyderabad, India, Cigniti Technologies is the world’s foremost company that has stepped into offering independent software testing services. With its test services offered in quality engineering, advisory & transformation, next generation testing, and core testing, the company also focuses on making use of SMART Tools that can speed up testing as well as help improve the quality of services delivered to clients.

Key Features:

1. No-Script Test Automation: It easily generates high-quality test automation that does not require expertise in scripting.
2. AI Advancements: It leverages AI to provide an adaptable framework, facilitating the ongoing change of automation artifacts in test applications.
3. Methodology: Cigniti regularly innovates and uses their own methods to automate manual tests, which can be compatible with your current agile and DevOps environment.
4. Testing Capabilities: Besides automation testing, the company offers other services such as Agile testings Test Data management ERP mappings Functional Performance and more.


  • AI Optimization: Uses a range of alternative AI algorithms, ensuring efficient test suite optimization.
  • Additional Services: Provides additional services such as DevOps Transformation, Security Assurance etc.
  • Custom Automation Strategy: It helps create an intricately planned automation plan matching your enterprise’s goals.


  • Limited Autonomous Management: Lacks autonomy management capacity.

Also Read:- 15 Points To Consider While Hiring a Software Testing Company

7. QualityLogic

QualityLogic is an exceptional automation testing service provider that ensures cost optimization, and tests customized to your specific needs. It is a perfect fit for cost-effective testing as it provides personalized guidance on automation strategies and ROI projections.
As a top-tier automation testing firm, QualityLogic can automatically adapt to your current software stack and align with your SDLC and processes. However, it is leading in digital accessibility and avant-garde energy testing services providing flexible arrangements for customization to your development environments.

Key Features:
1. On-Demand Assistance: QualityLogic has an experienced team of developers, testers and specialists using up-to-date technology to solve your problems.
2. Customized Approach: Assessing the scope of your technology, needs and challenges; their team creates an intelligent solution just for you.
3. Efficiency: Enables the development of extremely productive processes, ensuring that costly mistakes are identified at an early stage. It helps in lowering time to market and improving performance with bottleneck optimization.
4. Testing Services: Provides a wide range of testing services, including software testing, intelligent energy solutions, etc


  • Dedicated Support Team: It provides a separate team of support and maintenance for new feature releases.
  • Comprehensive Testing Services: Offers various test services covering web automation testing, mobile app testing and others.
  • Responsive Customer Support: It provides prompt customer care services via email and other modes of communication.


  • Not Ideal for Large Enterprise Projects: Not necessarily suitable for large scale enterprise level projects.

Test automation is not a task that would take a lot of time and energy. It just needs improved concentration and focus of the individual conducting it. If you are a certified professional in test automation, you can look for a career opportunity in any of the above-mentioned firms.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How to select the best automation testing companies?

The choice of leading automation testing companies is usually dependent on factors that include industry reputation, client ratings, proficiency in automation technology and capabilities as well their ability to provide quality solutions.

2. Which various software development methodologies these companies work upon?

Many leading automation testing companies are also able to accommodate different approaches like Agile, DevOps, as well as traditional Waterfall methods. They tailor their testing approaches based on the unique requirements and operational dynamics of their customers.

3. Apart from automation testing, what kinds of test services do these companies provide?

Other than automation testing, leading companies offer broad range testing services including performance testing, security testing, mobile app testing, usability testing and specialized work in digital accessibility intelligent test.

4. Are these companies able to customize their automation solutions so that they would suit the needs of individual industries?

Yes, leading automation testing companies usually serve their clients based on individual needs of industry. They study the peculiarities and needs of various industries and customize their automation platforms aimed at quality testing in different business spheres like finances, medicine, online shops etc.

Automation Testing Tutorial For Beginners

Automation testing not only relieves testers of repeatedly executing the same test cases again and again but also enhances the execution speed and decreases the chances of human prone errors. Will not you like something as effective as automation testing to be on your stride?
Let us learn more about automation testing here
What is Automation Testing?
Automation Testing, automates the manual testing nullifying human efforts.  It uses an automation tool to run your test cases. These automation tools do not require any human intervention and automatically enters test data into the System under Test, compare expected and actual results and generate detailed test reports.
Why do I spend Extra Money on Automation testing?
Below mentioned benefits of automation testing will definitely convince you to consider automation testing for your system and will assure you it will not be a waste of money.

  1. Sometimes you have to repeatedly execute the same test cases for many numbers of times, test automation tool allows you to record the test suite and re-execute it when required.
  2. Thus it eliminates the boredom of executing the same test case again and again. It also improves the ROI as no human intervention is required for automated test suits.
  3. Automation testing saves time, as manually testing all scenarios for various devices and browsers can be very time-consuming.
  4. Testing multilingual sites manually can be very difficult; hence automation testing is very beneficial in such a case.
  5. In case of long test cases, they can be left unattended whole night in automated testing.
  6. Increases the speed of testing.
  7. It gives wider coverage of test cases.
  8. Manual testing can be boring at times and can hence be error-prone; this issue is very well taken care by automated testing.

But it is not a good idea to automate all type of testing, so be particular in deciding when to automate your test cases and when not.
Which Test Cases should We Automate?
Our main aim is to get a higher ROI. Based on it, here are few test cases you can consider automating

  • High Risk – Business Critical test cases
  • Test cases to be executed repeatedly
  • Tedious or difficult test cases
  • Time-consuming test cases

There are a few types of test cases that are better suited for manual testing. So it is better not to automate such test cases.

  • New test cases that are not even manually executed even once
  • Test Cases with frequently changing requirements
  • Test cases executed on an ad-hoc basis.

What are the Common Myths of Automation Testing?
Many myths are linked to software testing. It is important to be well aware of these misconceptions before you kick off your automation testing
Some of the common myths associated with automation testing are:

  • Automation completely replaces Manual Testing

Automation testing is definitely not a complete replacement of manual testing. There are many unpredicted scenarios that might require human intervention and there are some errors that are better determined by manual testing.

  • Automation Testing is not necessary, Manual Testing provides a solution to all kinds of Testing.

There is another side of the coin where some people believe that everything can be done manually. But there are some scenarios like regression testing where manual testing cannot be effective and might take longer to accomplish the tasks.

  • Automation consumes a Lot of Time

It might seem that automating the tests is time-consuming, but if we consider the complete picture, once automated, the automation testing can save us a lot of time.

  • Automation Is Very Easy

Automation testing as believed is not an easy-peasy task. Writing test scripts requires knowledge and experience and is definitely not an easy task. But if you compare it with manual testing, it definitely is easier if you know how to write the test cases.

  • Automation is only for Regression Testing

To much automation testing is only meant for regression testing. But the fact is that it covers many other areas like performance, product setup, security, compatibility, and many others.

  • Automation testing does not require cooperation between the Testers

It is completely a myth that automation testing has nothing to do with cooperation among the testers. Software development as a whole requires a fine-tuning among the engineers and automation testing is no different and requires close cooperation between the testers.

  • It returns a Faster ROI

Automation testing is a long term process and expecting immediate returns on your automation investments is a huge mistake. You have to be very patient to start getting a positive ROI.

  • Automation Testing only detects Bugs

If you are the one who believes automation testing only finds the errors then let us acknowledge you with its other benefits. It delivers valuable data and insights which help in improving the end product and solve many technical issues.
What should you do and what not in Automation testing?
There are always Dos and Don’ts for everything. These dos and don’ts are very important to perform your task effectively. Here are dos and don’ts of Automation testing that can help you conduct your automation testing effectively.
The Dos of Test Automation

  1. Break Your Tests Into smaller And Autonomous Scenarios

Shorter and more specific scenarios can help you detect issues with ease. Single test scenario makes troubleshooting difficult.

  1. Choose the Tests to Automate wisely

Automating all the test cases are not a wise idea, so be very ingenious while selecting the test cases to automate.

  1. Start small, don’t hurry

Don’t be in a hurry to create the complete test suits all at once. Follow the project’s workflow and automate only what is required.

  1. Set Priorities

Prioritize your work. Spend more time on test cases for the functions that are more crucial the simple and less important ones.

  1. Employ Professionals

Using an expert hand for your automation testing requirements can promise you greater benefits.
The Don’ts of Test Automation

  1. Do Not start Automating From the First Day Itself

Don’t be in a haste to automate your test cases. Give your project a little time and understand the scope of automation for your project.

  1. Don’t Try Running Everything at Every Time

It’s certainly not a good idea to test everything all the time. Spend time on testing only the functionalities that require testing and don’t waste time on testing everything all the time.

  1. Don’t Automate All the Manual Tests

Automating everything is not a good idea. Manual testing holds a very important place in software testing and is capable of finding the most unexpected defects at time.

  1. Don’t Automate Everything

Don’t just automate everything; it could be simply a waste of time and money.

  1. Don’t Ignore Further Development

Don’t ever think your work of automation testing is done. Keep a track of developments in the project and don’t miss to add test cases for them.
How to automate Test Cases?
Automating test cases follows a predefined process. Here are the basic steps to follow while automating your test cases.

  1. Test Tool selection

Test Tool we select is largely dependent on the technology your application is built on. It’s a good idea to conduct a Proof of Concept of Tool on Application Under Test.

  1. Define the scope of Automation

The scope is the part of your Application that has:

  • Scenarios with extensive data
  • Business important features
  • Functionalities that is common among applications.
  • Technical feasibility
  • Components with Reusable test cases
  • Complex test cases
  • Components to be tested across cross-browser testing
  1. Planning, Design, and Development

This phase is all about automation, strategy, design, and development. Your automation planning and design should include the below-given points:

  • Shortlisted Automation tools
  • Design and features of the Framework
  • Automation testbed preparation
  • Scripting and execution schedule and timelines
  • All the Deliverables

  1. Test Execution

Finally, it’s time to execute the test cases. In this phase, input test data are set to run and after execution, the test report is produced. You can directly execute test cases through automation tools or through test management tools that further invoke the automation tools.

  1. Maintenance

Maintenance is an on-going and a very important phase of automation testing life cycle. Whenever new functionalities are added to the system under test, automation scripts need to be reviewed and revised. Hence maintenance becomes important to enhance the effectiveness of automation scripts.
What are the various tactics for Automation Testing?
Automation testing is a crucial part of STLC. To accomplish it you can follow any of these three approaches.

  • Code-Driven: Code-driven automation testing, which is popularly used in agile software focuses on validating whether the code works as per expectations or not.
  • Graphical user interface (GUI) testing: It is meant for GUI rich applications. User actions can be recorded here and can be analysed multiple times. It supports test cases in multiple languages like C#, Java, Perl, Python, etc.
  • Test Automation Framework: A Set of automation guidelines, modularity, project hierarchies, concepts, coding standards, reporting mechanism, practices, processes, test data injections, etc. are predefined to help execute automation testing effectively.

These are the various methods that you can deploy to automate your software testing. Let us now learn in detail about the most important one – Framework for Automation
A Set of automation guidelines, modularity, project hierarchies, concepts, coding standards, reporting mechanism, practices, processes, test data injections, etc. are predefined to help execute automation testing effectively.  You can use these guidelines while automating test cases to get effective results.
What are the advantages of Test Automation Framework?

  1. Enhances code Reusability
  2. Maintains test consistency
  3. Gives Maximum coverage
  4. Minimum code usage
  5. Recovery scenario
  6. Low-cost code maintenance
  7. Minimal manual intervention
  8. Data involvement when required
  9. Reduced training period
  10. Easy Reporting
  11. Enhanced test structuring

There are five types of frameworks used in automation software testing:

  • Data-driven Framework: It focuses on separating test scripts logic from test data.
  • Linear Scripting Framework: Focuses on sequential or linear recording and replaying of test scripts.
  • Modular Testing Framework: Dividing application into numerous modules and creating their test scripts separately.
  • Hybrid Testing Framework: A combination of all the frameworks to pull the powers of each.
  • Keyword-driven Framework: test scripting is done based on the keywords specified in the excel sheet and accordingly tests are executed.

What are the Automation Testing Best Practices?
The below given best practices can help you increase your ROI and to get the best result from your automation testing:

  • It is always advisable to set the scope of Automation before starting the project. It helps in setting the right expectations from the project.
  • Selecting the right automation tool can make a huge difference in your testing results. You should always select the tool that suits your requirements and not the one with the best ratings and high popularity.
  • The framework plays a very important role in the success of automation testing. So spend time in creating a framework for your automation.
  • Always follow the best Scripting Standards. You can follow the below-given standards to meet your requirements.
  • Create uniform comments, scripts, and indentation of the code
  • Be prepared for Exception handling; the automation tool should be well prepared to handle unexpected errors and exceptions in.
  • For the ease of testers, the error logging messages should be standardized.
  • Defining the Success of automation requires some metrics. You cannot just compare the manual effort with the automation effort. Below are some of the metrics that you need to take into account to define your automation test success:
  • Defects percentage
  • Productivity improvement
  • Automation testing time for each cycle
  • Minimal release Time
  • Index for Customer Satisfaction

What are the Advantages of Automation Testing?
Automation testing has many advantages and it is a good idea to consider it for your testing whenever required.

  • It is around 70% quicker than manual testing
  • The results of automation testing are more reliable and less prone to human intervened errors
  • Automation testing Guarantee Consistency
  • It saves a lot of Time and Cost
  • Higher ROI
  • Increases accuracy
  • Does not require any Human Intervention for execution
  • It enhances Efficiency
  • Test scripts can be re-used whenever required, hence saving a lot of time for recreating them.
  • Automation testing gives a wider coverage of test cases

Know More: Top 10 Automation Testing Tools 2019

What are the Applications of Automation Testing?
Automation can cover a big part of testing. Some of the common applications of automation testing are:

  • Performance testing: Automated testing is very efficient for testing the performance of your software product.
  • Test data generation:  Automation testing can help you to program tests to automatically generate entry data.
  • Product Setup:  Automating Product setup ensures that your software product is efficiently set up.
  • User interface components’ interaction: It takes care of smooth interaction between various components of a user interface.
  • Regression Testing:  Automated regression testing helps to avoid errors incurred because of code changes.
  • Security Testing:  Atomization of tests helps in easy detection of security-related bugs if any.
  • Functional (White-Box and Black-Box):  Functional testing can be a daunting task at times; it is a wise idea to automate functional testing.
  • Installation / Integration / System: Testing installation/integrations and system bugs can be head honking if done manually. Automation of such test cases can easily ensure proper installation and integration of components within a system.
  • Smoke and Sanity Testing: Automated scripts can reliably conduct both smoke and sanity testing.
  • Usability/UI/GUI Testing: The user interface, GUI and usability testing are other tests that can be better if automated
  • Compatibility: Compatibility testing is another task which is very time consuming and daunting if done manually, automating compatibility testing can promise better results and wider coverage.
  • Internationalization: Internationalization is better when automated.
  • User Acceptance: User acceptation demands greater accuracy, and Automation promises you enhanced accuracy.

How to Choose Which Automation Testing Tool is best for me?
You cannot just randomly pick an automation tool for your automation testing. Picking up the right tool is very important for getting the maximum benefit out of your automation testing. The following criteria can help you pick the best automation tool:

  • Environment Support
  • Testing of Database
  • Ease of use
  • Image Testing
  • Object identification
  • Object Mapping
  • Tools that support various types of test
  • Error Recovery Testing
  • Scripting Language Used
  • A tool that can identify objects in every environment
  • Multiple testing frameworks support
  • Easy to debug the automation software scripts
  • Minimal training cost
  • Detailed test reports and results

What are the Various Automation Testing Tools?
Selecting the best automation tool is a challenging task. We would advise you to first identify your requirements, study about different automation tools and their features and then choose the one that fits your requirements the best.
Here are the Names of some very Popular Automation Testing Tools.

  • Selenium – It is a very popular automation testing tool for a web application, supporting various platforms and browsers.
  • Watir – It is an open source automation testing tool for web applications. It is created using Ruby libraries.
  • Ranorex – Ranorex is a GUI automated testing tool for multiple environments and devices.
  • Appium – Appium is known to be one of the best Open source mobile automation testing tool.

Can We trust all Testers for our Automation Testing needs?
With time automation testing has become very simple and a manual tester can easily accomplish it if he has a good business.
Any tester can execute expert’s created test automation scripts.
But there is another side of the coin, there are different skill sets that require more technical knowledge which is not easy to be learned by a manual tester overnight.
Today a test automation expert is expected to design an overall automation strategy for the entire product.
They require knowledge to select the right set of tools for every stage and give a cost-effective and unified integration strategy.
Automation testers are also expected to develop functions that can reduce manual testing and test data generation work.
Hope you would have found this article informative!

What is a Test Harness in Software Testing?

Harness in a literal sense is a gear that is used to take control of something. In software testing, it is none different. In testing terms, It refers to a collection of software, test drivers, test data and other supporting tools that are constructed to test an application by executing it under different environments and analyzing its results. It uses test libraries to execute tests and generate a report.

A test harness in layman language is to make automation framework and use its constituent elements to take charge of the testing activity to get the best results.

What are the objectives of Test Harness?

  • Automate the testing process.
  • Helps in test case optimization by selecting specific tests to run
  • Execute test suites of test cases.
  • Organizes a run time environment
  • Generate associated test reports.
  • Analyzes test results.

What are the Features of Test Harness?

  • Executes test suit in the framework
  • Assists measure the code coverage at the code level.
  • Enters test data to an application under test
  • Captures the output from the software under test
  • Offers flexibility and support for debugging
  • Records test results

What are the benefits of Test Harness?

  • With more effective automation, increases in productivity.
  • Improved software quality.
  • Automates the testing process.
  • Supports debugging.
  • Supports scheduling of tests.
  • Good for complex conditions.
  • Automated test reports generation.
  • Records test results.
  • Enhanced productivity.
  • Enhance software quality.

Contexts where Test Harness is used
1. Test Harness in Test Automation
Test harness in automation testing refers to the software systems and the framework that includes test data, test scripts, test results and compares them and analyze the results.
For example, if you use any testing tool for functional testing, it organizes and manages all the test data, scripts, runs, and results. The test harness for it will be:

  • The testing tool
  • The scripts and
  • The physical location where they are stored
  • The Test sets
  • Test data for the test scripts
  • The test results and the comparative monitoring attributes

2. Test Harness in Integration Testing
Integration testing is testing whether the combined behavior of two or more integrated code is as expected or not.
In an Ideal scenario, Integration testing of two modules is possible when both of them are 100% ready, unit tested and good to go.
But, this everything can’t be perfect at all times. And we might land up in a situation where above conditions are not fulfilled. Hence we use  (stubs and drivers) to overcome this situation. A stub is a proxy piece of code that substitutes the missing piece of code.

What is the difference between Test automation framework and Test Harness?

Test Harness
Test Harness Tools
Though there are no specific tools, it includes tools like test management tools, automation testing tools, etc. Any similar test tool can be an element of the test harness.
Since now you know a lot about test Harness, do keep an account of this when you leverage for your automation testing. Be wise in your selection and usage of test harness; it can bring huge benefits to your test automation.

11 Tips and Tricks For Appium and Selenium

Selenium and Appium are two well-known automation testing tools. Selenium is largely leveraged for testing web applications whereas Appium is widely used for testing mobile applications. Bundled with many features, both these tools are highly recommended for software testing.
But you need to have a proper understanding of these appium and selenium tools to get best out of them.  There are few tips and tricks that can help you get best out these tools and leverage them to their best abilities.
Let’s make our job easier with these veteran Tips and Tricks about Appium and Selenium.

The Use of Waits: 

Using Thread.Sleep() is a common method of “waiting” while any processing is going on. But it possesses a few drawbacks. Here is how we can overcome it.
a)    WebDriverWait.  It census your query every 500ms, and return when the wait condition is fulfilled. WebDriverWait can explicitly put a maximum threshold to elude locks and infinite waiting.
b)    FindElementBy / FindElement(..): Second method is by invoking FindElementBy or just FindElement(..). FindElementBy waits until the element is found and returns null if maximum wait time passes. But be sure you have to explicitly configure the implicitly waits.
1. Locating Elements
Locating element is not a tough job in selenium and there are many ways to do it. But the haunting part is getting StaleElementReferenceException.
It happens when you assign IWebElement reference but it already has some other location in the DOM. The solution to StaleElementReferenceException is to re-query and reassign the element reference.
2. Sending Keyboard input
Selenium allows sending inputs in two ways. First is by setting “value” property of editable elements by using ExecuteScript() / ExecuteAsyncScript(). Second is to use SendKeys() API.
I would suggest you use ExecuteScript() / ExecuteAsyncScript() method when you are more concerned about filling in a few fields and when you are not concerned about DOM events being fired and concurrent character-by-character verification.
But if you want to focus on real-time validation, the second method i.e. using SendKeys() API will be more apt for you.
3. Executing JavaScript code
You can execute JavaScript in either of the below-given ways depending upon your requirements.
i)    ExecuteScript().ExecuteScript() does not execute the next line of         test code till script execution is returned.
ii)    ExecuteAsyncScript() does not block your test code.
4. Drag & Drop Interfaces
Action Builder API, and the “DragAndDrop” and “DragAndDropToOffset” methods support easy drag and drop interface in Selenium.
5. Switching between windows and iframes
You can easily switch between windows and frames in Selenium.

  1. For iFrames

driver.SwitchTo().Frame(frameElement); //IWebElement

  1. For Windows

driver.SwitchTo().Window(handle);// driver window handle
and then can switch back to the original window by using

  1. Using drivers for multiple browsers

When using the driver API, always refer it by using RemoteWebDriver class for all the browsers used for running tests.
It is good to label your environment in a text/XML file and then deconstruct this and return the correct driver instance.
6. Cleaning UP
When you are done with your testing, you need to free all the resources and close the browser.
For this you can use Close(), Quit(), and Dispose().  Quit() closes all browsers, close() closes the existing browser  while Dispose() calls the quit() and closes all browsers.
Now when we are done with a few tips and tricks of working with selenium, let us now get better in our Apium skills.
Appium is one of the widely used mobile app testing tools. Though its users encounter some common problems while using it…
Here are some tips and tricks that can help you handle some common problems faced in using it and making it’s working more efficient and effective.
So, here we go…
7. Writing cross-platform tests 
One of the major issue in testing mobile apps is we have to write different test scenario for Android and iOS. Having common tests can be a big benefit in terms of saving time and efforts.
Though it gets much easier having the same set of test cases for both if your application is the same from a UI point-of-view.

Read also :  Testcafe Vs Selenium. Which is Better?

Just make sure that the accessibility IDs on corresponding UI elements in each version of the app matches with each other. If it stands true, you can run the same test on both applications. Also, be sure your test sets up the appropriate capabilities for each platform.
Based on different platforms, here are some more and little-known tips and tricks about Appium that can make your testing easier.
8. For All Platforms

  • AutoWebView – it is very useful for Cordova apps and helps to start in the webview context.

9. For Android

  • ignoreUnimportantViews – It is a very useful method to quicken your Android tests.
  • nativeWebScreenshot – Helps you to take a screenshot from UIAutomator. It is very useful if your screenshots from chromedriver are not as expected.

10. For IoS

  • locationServicesAuthorized – It helps you to prevent showing an alert when you are trying to use the user’s location by pre-authorizing location services.
  • Auto[Accept|Dismiss]Alerts – It helps you avoid alerts from disrupting your tests.
  • nativeWebTap – Permits users to use non-javascript taps.
  • safariIgnoreFraudWarning – It is beneficial in cases where your test environment doesn’t have 100% perfect SSL setup.
  • interKeyDelay – Sometimes Appium’s typing speed can cause a problem with your application, in such cases, interKeyDelay can evade the problem.
  • sendKeyStrategy – Helps in avoiding the keyboard altogether.

11. Networking Conditioning
You can use driver.setNetworkConnection(value) to stimulate various states of connectivity when you run your tests.
Hope these tips will prove helpful to you, will be back soon with some more useful testing tips and tricks. So stay tuned!

Why Should You Shift to Functional Automation Testing?

Do you get bored with manually testing your code for bugs again and again? Proper functioning of the code is the foremost thing that matters.  If your code does not act as per the requirement specification, it is no longer of any use.

Functional testing assures that your code functions as per the requirements. But alas! Even a small change or an alteration in your code can alter its working. Hence it is advisable to retest your code every time a change is made to the code.
But running same test cases again and again can be daunting. And there enters automation testing. Automating your functional testing can relieve you of a lot of burdens and can save you a lot of time.
What is Functional Automation Testing? 
Before moving on to functional automation testing, let us first know a little about Functional Testing.
As discussed earlier functional testing confirms that every function of your code works in accordance with the requirement specification. Functional testing requires you to send appropriate inputs and to verify the actual output with the expected output.
But being the foremost quality assurance process, you may be required to repeat functional testing. And hence to ease out your work it is advisable to automate your functional testing process.
Functional Automation testing is a process that assists you in easy and faster execution of your functional test cases. Manual testing requires you to execute the test case step by step, which can be time-consuming as it is done by hand.
And to outcast, this peril, automating functional test case comes as a savior saving on both time and efforts. It helps in executing functional test cases automatically with no human intervention.
Before moving forward let’s look into some drawbacks of manual functional testing.
Drawbacks of Manual Testing
Here are some weaknesses of manual testing that promote testers to adopt automated testing:

  • Manual functional testing is very time-consuming.
  • Functional testing like regression testing becomes very repetitive and losses testers’ interest.
  • It requires many resources.
  • It might miss out on a few scopes of functional testing.

Why Functional Automation Testing?
Considering the current scenario where we develop software at a fast speed and alterations and enhancements are done at an equally fast speed, we need a methodology where we can test our code with an equally high speed. And that is where a need arises for functional automation testing.

Know More: 7 Best Practices You can Consider for Functional Testing

Companies are now moving toward Agile and DevOps, increasing the importance of automation than ever before. The frequent integrations and enhancements in the code require test cases to run quickly and accurately. And automation functional testing assures the best accuracy and quick run avoiding all human errors.
The main reason for a switch to functional automation testing is to save on both time and money. It assists the quick feedback to the developers for any bugs and errors.
Apart from time and money savings, Functional automated testing also benefits in:

  • More precise benchmarking.
  • Fewer faults because of human error.
  • Gives wider test coverage.
  • Assists reusability.
  • Helps in faster release of the software.
  • Assists in faster feedbacks to the developers about the bugs in the code.

So are there any downsides to creating automated tests?
What’s the real story?
Functional test automation as software development
Functional automation tests or any other automation tests are a piece of software code that relies on one or other programing language. This makes it a complete software development activity where you develop a code to test another piece of code.

Developing functional testing code is equally complicated like other software development projects and presenting similar issues like them.
So take care to follow software development best practices to develop a successful functional automation test case.
Should you automate all your test cases?
Automating all the test cases does not seem to be a good idea. Rather, not everything is even automatable. To look out for what test cases you should ideally automate, consider the following things:

  • Deterministic test cases
  • Automate test cases that do not require manual communication
  • Test cases that deals with fiscal-related areas of the software
  • Test cases that deals with risk areas of the software
  • Test that requires running on different data sets.
  • Test cases those are difficult for manual testing.
  • Test cases those are required to run on various browsers, systems, etc.
  • Test cases that is time-consuming.
  • Stress/load test cases
  • Unit test cases

You can consider automating the more time-consuming and repetitive test cases. Though, the criterion may vary depending on various other conditions.
But what about Functional automation testing ROI? Let’s have a look into it.
Functional Automation Testing ROI 
Finally, it is ROI that majorly governs any business decisions. Whether to automate your test cases or not; is also largely dependent on ROI. The determination of ROI for automation testing is tricky. Here is a small formula that can help you find a rough estimate of the automation cost.

Know More: Difference Between Functional and Non Functional Testing

Automation Cost = automation tool cost + cost of the labor to automate test cases + maintenance cost
If your automation test cost turns out to be lower than the manual testing cost, you should look out for automating test cases.  Moreover, testing cost increases with every run in manual testing, whereas the ROI adds up with every run in automation testing
But there are some other factors apart from ROI that can affect your decision to whether or not to automate test cases.
What Not to Automate
Functional automation testing, no doubt save time and efforts. But automating all the test cases is not a good idea. There are certain types of test cases you should not consider automating.

  • Test cases that are to be performed only once.
  • Ad Hoc based test cases.
  • Test cases that do not have a predictive result.
  • Usability test cases.

Be wise in your selection of test cases to automate. Functional test case automation can be highly beneficial for you if done wisely.
Functional testing is one of the most important phases of STLC. But sometimes functional testing can be very time-consuming and frantic task.

Automating function test cases is one most apt solution to overcome this snag. Functional automation testing can save you both time and money.
So be clever and consider functional automation testing for your upcoming projects.

Selenium Tutorial For Beginners [Step by Step]

Everybody knows about the impeccable selenium! The ultimate tool for testing web applications! for you to learn in detail about how to carry out automation testing, we have written an extensive Selenium tutorial just for you!
This blog comprises of three part,
1. Selenium Tutorial For Beginners
2. Selenium Intermediate Level Tutorial
3. Selenium Advanced level Tutorial

Selenium Tutorial For Beginners

What makes Selenium better?

You don’t need to code anything in Selenium and with this; any beginner will be able to record and play the simplest web application scripts.
Usually, Selenium RC needs a server to be up and running for sending commands to the browser. It is used for cross-browser testing and you can write the code in any language.
Selenium Web Driver is a better version of IDE and RC. It directly sends commands to the browser without the need of a server to be up and running.

Different languages can be used for coding the scripts like Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, and Ruby. Selenium Grid is used for parallel testing in multiple browsers and environments. It used the hub and node concept where hub acts as a source of Selenium commands and each node is connected to it.
Now, here we will discuss Selenium WebDriver. How a beginner can start learning Selenium WebDriver and how he can excel in it.
Now, first, we will look at the steps we need to follow to download Selenium Web Driver in your machine.

Ways to download and install Selenium WebDriver

  • You should have Java installed in your machine. This is the pre-requisite for Selenium Web Driver to work.
  • You can visit the page: http://seleniumhq.org/download/ and download the client drivers and language bindings. You have the select binding for Java.
  • This download will be named – selenium-2.25.0.zip.
  • Now, you can import all the Jars in Eclipse. You have to right click on the project and import jar files by selecting all the downloaded jar files. For this, you can click on the Libraries tab and then click on “Add External JARs”.

Now Let’s look the First Selenium WebDriver Script

Let’s take an example of the first Selenium Script which we would create using Selenium basic methods.
Let’s first look at the script in detail. In this script, we will do the following test steps.

  • Go to the home page of the test application
  • Verify the title of the page
  • Do a comparison of the result.
  • Close the browser after the script is done.

package projectSelenium;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
public class seleniumTest {
public static void main(String[] args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
String baseUrl = “https://google.com”;
String expectedTitle = “Google”;
String actualTitle = “”;
        // launch Fire fox and direct it to the Base URL
        // get the actual value of the title
actualTitle = driver.getTitle();
* compare the actual title of the page with the expected one and print
* the result as “Passed” or “Failed”
if (actualTitle.contentEquals(expectedTitle)){
System.out.println(“Test Passed!”);
} else {
System.out.println(“Test Failed”);

Things to look at the above code:

  • In the first two lines, we have imported two packages. You have to import – org.openqa.selenium and org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver.
  • The most important step is to instantiate the browser. This is done by line

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
//This is done to invoke a chrome browser.
You can invoke a FireFox browser by following line of code
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
You can invoke an IE browser by following line of code:
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver ();
Also, while invoking a browser you have to pass the path of the executable file. You can do it by following line of code:
System.setProperty(“webdriver.chrome.driver”,”Path of chrome driver”);
System.setproperty(“webdriver.ie.driver”,”Path of ie driver”);

  • Get() method is used to enter a url in a browser.
  • getTitle() method of selenium webdriver is used to fetch the title of a web page.
  • Now, we have to compare the expected title with the actual title.

System.out.println(“TEST PASSED”):

  • For terminating the browser, close() method is used. Driver.close() closes the active browser window. If you want to close all the opened browser windows by selenium web driver then you can use driver.quit().
  • You can run this test by right clicking on the program and then select as “Run As” as “Java Application”.
  • Next thing which is of utmost important while writing a test script is to identify web Elements which will be explained in detail in the below section.

Locating Web Elements

Locating web elements is very easy. Various selectors are available for that process. find Elements is one such 2 in which selenium webdriver is used for locating a web element and then, you can perform an action on that.

Know More: Selenium Automation Testing With Cucumber Integration

Let’s see some of the methods by which you can identify web element on a web page.

  • className – It will locate web element based on the class attribute. Eg: By.className(“abc”);
  • cssSelector – used to locate web element based on css selector engine. Eg:- By.cssSelector(“#abc”);
  • id – If some web element has id attribute, then you can directly identify the web element using id tag. Eg:- By.id(“abc”);
  • linkText – It will find a link element by text mentioned by you in the test script. By.linkText(“Login”);
  • name – If any web element has name attached to it then you can identify it using name attribute. Eg: By.name(“name”);
  • partialText – It will find a link element by text containing the text mentioned by you in the test script. By.partialText(“abc”);
  • tagName – It will locate all elements which will have this tag.
  • xpath – It is the most used locator in a selenium test script. It will identify the element using html path. It can be relative or absolute. Absolute xpath traverses the path of the web element by root and relative takes the reference of any web element and then traverse to that specified web element. It is better to refer an element by relative xpath rather than absolute xpath.

Basic Actions on a web element

You can click on a web element by using click() method of selenium web driver. You can locate a web element and then perform an action on it.
Eg: driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”)).click();
Also, you can send keys to a particular web element by using send Keys() method of selenium web driver. You can locate a web element and then you can enter some text in it using sendKeys() method.
Eg: driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”)).sendKeys(“name”);
Also, there are other actions which you can perform on a web element by using action class.
WebElement wb = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”));
Actions actions = new Actions(Driver);
Actions.moveToElement(wb).build(). Perform ();
You can even switch to alert boxes which come when you click on some webelement. You can do it by switchTo().alert() method.
Eg code:
WebElement wb = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”));
Now, you will be able to access the alert box. You can retrieve the message displayed in the text box by getting the text from it.
String alertMessage = driver.switchTo().alert().getText();
Also, you can accept the alert box by function accept(). You can see the sample code as below:
You can even check conditional operations on a web element.
Also, check whether a web element is enabled or not. If it will be enabled then you can do some operation on it.
Apart from all these, you can check if some web element is displayed or not. In the case of radio buttons, you can check if the radio button is selected or not. You can do these checks by – isEnabled(), isSelected() and isDisplayed() option.

Waits in Selenium Web Driver

Selenium Web Driver
If you want some step to get completed before any other step then you have to wait for the prior step to get completed. In manual testing, it is very easy to achieve but in automation testing, it is bit tedious and you have to wait for the previous step to get completed or a condition to be fulfilled before moving on wards to the next step.
This can be achieved by adding waits in between. There are two types of wait- explicit and implicit wait. If you are expecting a particular condition to be fulfilled before moving to the next step,
Another feature is that you can use explicit wait while if you just want a universal wait, then you can go ahead to use implicit wait. The implicit wait is used to set the default time out for the whole script.
A perfect automation script is made by adding both type of waits – Explicit and Implicit. You have to judiciously use both types of waits to make an efficient test case.

Know More : Top 50 Selenium Interview Questions and Answers

Explicit Wait

Syntax of Explicit Wait:
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(WebDriverRefrence,TimeOut);
Expected Condition can be used with so many conditions. Some conditions which can be used with it are:

  • alertIsPresent()
  • elementSelectionStateToBe()
  • elementToBeClickable()
  • elementToBeSelected()
  • frameToBeAvaliableAndSwitchToIt()
  • invisibilityOfTheElementLocated()
  • invisibilityOfElementWithText()
  • presenceOfAllElementsLocatedBy()
  • presenceOfElementLocated()
  • textToBePresentInElement()
  • textToBePresentInElementLocated()
  • textToBePresentInElementValue()
  • titleIs()
  • titleContains()
  • visibilityOf()
  • visibilityOfAllElements()
  • visibilityOfAllElementsLocatedBy()
  • visibilityOfElementLocated()

Implicit Wait

Syntax of Implicit Wait:
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(TimeOut, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
For this, you have to import a package into your code. The package name is java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

Selenium Intermediate Level Tutorial

Through the section Selenium Tutorial for Beginners, We gave you the basic info that you need to know about the tool. Now let’s go further and learn much more about this impeccable web app testing tool.
How to upload a file in Selenium test cases?
To upload a file, first, you have to identify the element on which you have to upload your file. There you can directly use sendKeys() function of selenium web driver. You can pass the path of the location in sendKeys. In this way, you will be able to upload a file using selenium web driver.

public static void main(String[] args) {
System.setProperty(“webdriver.gecko.driver”,”path of gecko driver”);
String baseUrl = “http://www.google.com /upload/”;
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.id(“id of element”));
//Here,  above you have to pass the path of the file where your file is located.
// Then you can click the upload file link
How to use a web table in selenium script
You have to access a web table and the elements present in the table. You can get it by making an xpath. Suppose you have had1 0a table with four blocks.
selenium intermediate tutorial
The first thing which you have to do is to find the XPath of the web element in this web table. Let’s say you want to get to the third element in the above web element.
The coding of the above web table is as below:

Selenium Intermediate Level TutorialSelenium Intermediate Level Tutorial
Now, you can analyze that first there is a table and then there is a tbody. In that tbody there are two rows. One row is having two tables. The first row is having two cells – First and Second. The second row is having two cells – Third and Fourth.
Our goal is to reach to the third cell. Let’s try to make the XPath of it.
The XPath of it will be //table/tbody/tr[2]/td[1]
So, the table is the parent node from which we will iterate to go the third element. From there, we will go to the tbody section and then the second row. From there we will get the first column.
Let’s write a script to get the text out of it.
public static void main(String[] args) {
String url = “http://testsite.com/test/write-xpath-table.html”;
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
String txtWebelement = driver.findElement( By.xpath(“//table/tbody/tr[2]/td[1]”).getText();
Let’s take an example of a nested web table. You have to then analyze it carefully and get the XPath of it. Let’s look at the example below to get more information on it.
Selenium Intermediate Level Tutorial:
So, if you want to access the web element which is having text 10-11-12 then you can do it by traversing from the table and then iterating through the rows and columns to reach there.
Xpath would be: //table/tbody/tr[2]/td[2]/table/tbody/tr[2]/td[2]
public static void main(String[] args) {
String url = “http://testsite.com/test/write-xpath-table.html”;
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
String txtWebelement = driver.findElement( By.xpath(“//table/tbody/tr[2]/td[2]/table/tbody/tr[2]/td[2]
This way, you can iterate through the rows and columns to reach to a specific cell from a web table.
Now, one of the most important concepts in selenium which will help you in many cases when you won’t be retrieving any text from a web element or to enable a web element to get the text or to perform any action on it.
Let’s talk about JavaScript Executor in detail. It is an interface which helps to execute javascript.
JavaScript Executor
Sometimes you are not able to click on a web element using click() function. You can then use javascript executor to execute click function on a web element. Let’s have a look at the code.
WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
// JavascriptExecutor interfaceobject creation by type casting driver object
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
You can now click on a webelement using below command.
WebElement button = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”));
Also, if send keys isn’t working. You can make use of java script executor to send keys. Let’s look at the example below.
WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
// JavascriptExecutor interfaceobject creation by type casting driver object
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
You can even make use of java script executor to refresh a web page. You can do it by following command:
WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
// JavascriptExecutor interfaceobject creation by type casting driver object
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
Sometimes, getText() doesn’t work and then you have to make use of java script executor to get text of a web element. You can do it by following line of code:
WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
// JavascriptExecutor interfaceobject creation by type casting driver object
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
Sysout(js.executeScript(“return document.documentElement.innerText;”).toString());
You can even get the title and URL of a web page using java script executor. The procedure is very simple. Let’s have a look at the following lines of code.
WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
// JavascriptExecutor interfaceobject creation by type casting driver object
JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;
System.out.println(js.executeScript(“return document.title;”).toString());
System.out.println(js.executeScript(“return document.URL;”).toString());
Desired Capabilities Concept in selenium web driver
You can make the set of configurations on which you want a particular test script to run. You can pass browser name, version to specify the type of environment on which you want a test case to run.
Let’s see some of the capabilities which you can set in a test case for IE browser.
//it is used to define IE capability
DesiredCapabilities cap = DesiredCapabilities.internetExplorer();
cap.setCapability(CapabilityType.BROWSER_NAME, “IE”);
In the above capability, we have passed the capability browser name and we have ignored the security domain.
After setting the capabilities you can pass the capabilities to the web driver instance so that it executes the test on a particular configuration.
Let’s have a look at the complete set of code.
public static void main(String[] args) {
//it is used to define IE capability
DesiredCapabilities cap = DesiredCapabilities.internetExplorer();
cap.setCapability(CapabilityType.BROWSER_NAME, “IE”);
System.setProperty(“webdriver.ie.driver”, “path of executable”);
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(capabilities);
Handling a drop down in selenium web driver
You have to first import following packages: org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.Select.
First, you have to identify from DOM whether the dropdown is of select type or not. If it is of select type then you have to go for the below steps.
Then, you have to uniquely identify the select tag. You have to first make the object of Select class and pass the element for which you have to choose the options from the drop-down.
Select dropdown = new Select(driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”)));
Now, there are three main methods which you have to use to select any element from this select object.

  1. selectByVisibleText
  2. selectByIndex
  3. selectByValue

You can either select any element from this drop-down by matching the visible text with that of the text passed by you. You can also select any web element from the drop-down using an index. Last option is to select by value tag.
Also, there are some more functions which are available. Some of them are selectAll() and deselectAll() too select and deselect all the elements when more than one element can be selected.
But, if the dropdown is not of select type then you can’t go for the conventional method. You have to follow another method. You have to uniquely identify the web element on which you have to select a dropdown option. You can identify it and the sendKeys() function of selenium web driver to send keys to the uniquely identified dropdown.
WebElement dropdown = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“”));
Dropdown.sendKeys(“value to be selected”);
How to select the checkbox and radio button is selenium
Sometimes, you come across situations where you have to select checkboxes and radio buttons. You can do it easily with selenium web driver. You just have to use click() function of web driver to click on checkbox and radio button. You can even check of the web element is selected or not.
.isSelected() checks if any web element is selected or not.
It gives false if the web element is not selected and it gives true if the web element is selected.
This way, you can handle radio buttons and checkboxes in a selenium script.

Selenium Advanced level Tutorial

Now, you know almost the stuff which is required for selenium intermediate and beginner level. Now, you are proficient enough to deal with all the advanced level of selenium web driver. You can then practice those and while you are done with those, you can move forward to the advanced level of course.
Let’s see what lies ahead and what can give you an edge in your interviews. You can look at this advanced course so that you can be ahead of all the candidates who just know the basic and intermediate selenium course. Let’s have a look at Selenium Advanced level Tutorial

Selenium Grid

Selenium Grid is issued for running various tests on different browsers, operating systems, and machines in parallel. It used a hub and node concept. You don’t want test cases to run on a single machine. You have your machine as a hub and various systems on which test cases will be distributed. You call those machines as nodes.
The hub is the central point and there should be only one hub in a system. This hub is your machine from which you want to distribute the test cases among all the clients.
This is the machine on which test cases will run and those will be executed on the nodes. There can be more than one node. Nodes can have different configurations with different platforms and browsers.
Let’s see how you can establish a selenium grid in your machine.
You can download the selenium grid server from the official site. You can place Selenium server.jar in a hard drive. You have to place it in all nodes and hub c drive.
Open the command prompt in your hub and then, go to C directory. There you have to fire the below command java -jar selenium-server-standalone-2.30.0.jar -role hub
Now, if you want to check if the selenium grid server is running on localhost that is 4040 port or not. You can visit the local host on your browser.
You have to then go to C directory of the node and open command prompt in it. Also, when you have made the selenium grid server up in the hub, you have to note down the IP address and port.
java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=”C:\geckodriver.exe” -jar selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar -role webdriver -hub ip address of hub -port port number of hub
When you fire the above command, again go to hub browser and the port number 4040. Refresh the page and you will see IP address which will be linked to the hub.
Now, you have set up machines with different configurations. But how would the hub know which test case would be run on which node.
This will be done by desired capabilities which will tell that this test script would run on a particular set of configuration.
One can do it using below source code:
This way, you will be able to distribute the test cases across different machines and browsers. You will be able to do parallel testing using Selenium Grid.

Maven and Jenkins Integration with Selenium

Maven is a build management tool which is used to make the build process easy. Maven avoids hard coding of jars and you can easily share the project structure across the team using artifact and version id.
Every team member would be at the same page. You can make a maven project by going to File – New – Other – Maven project. You have to then specify the artifact id and then version id. You will be prompted to select a template. For starting, select a quik start template.
You will get a folder structure where you will be having two folders – src/main/java and src/main/test. In java folder, you will maintain all other stuff except tests while in test folder you will maintain all the test cases.
You will be having pom.xml file where you have to define all the dependencies so that it can download from the maven repository and place them in ./m2 repository in your local project structure.
You can get the dependency from the maven official site and then place in pom.xml. It will download all the required jars.
Also, Jenkins issued for continuous integration of the latest build with the production environment. Whenever a developer will fire the latest build then the smoke test will start running on that build.
If the build gets passed then it can be deployed to the production else the developer and tester would get a notification about the failed build. It makes the delivery cycle very fast.
Also, you can do it by downloading Jenkins war file and then running it so that Jenkins server will be up and running on port number 4040.

After doing that you can install all the necessary plug-ins. You can then create a new item and does the post-build actions.
Also, you can pass the path of git repository from which it will fetch the latest build. If you are using a local server then you pass the path of pom.xml from the system.
You can even set nightly runs with Jenkins, You have to specify the time when you want your test to run. They will run and you will get the reports on the Jenkins server the next morning. Isn’t it time-saving?

Database Testing using Selenium WebDriver

Integrating Selenium tests to the database is so easy in the latest version of the tool. You have to make use of JDBC library for database connections. It allows connection of Java and databases. First, make a connection to the database with the following command:

DriverManager.getConnection(URL, “userid”, “password” )
After doing that you can load the JDBC driver. You can do it by following lines of code:
Now, you have to send the query to the database. How will you do it? You can create an object of a statement class and then execute the query using the statement object.
Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
stmt.executeQuery(select *  from employee;);
Now, you can get the result in the result set. You can do it by following command:
ResultSet rs= stmt.executeQuery(query);
After doing all the operations, you can close the connection.
In this way, you can get the result set and then do all the validations on the result set.

How to take screenshots in selenium web driver

You should get the screenshot of the failed test cases so that you can get to know where exactly is the problem. This will help in better-debugging skills.

Let’s look at the steps involved in taking a screenshot:
TakesScreenshot scrShot =((TakesScreenshot)webdriver);
This step caste a driver instances to Takes Screenshot interface. Now, you have one method which is getting screenshots which will get the image file.
File SrcFile=scrShot.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
Now, you have taken the screenshot but you have to place it somewhere. You can create some folder which will be used for storing all the screenshots captured during the execution.
You can do it by following the line of code:
FileUtils.copyFile(SrcFile, DestFile);
This is the way to capture screenshots. But if you want that only the screenshot is taken when a test case fails. You can use ITestListener.
It has various methods and one of the methods is onFailure() which will do the specified task when every there is any failure in a test case.
So you can put this code in that method so that whenever any test fails it will take the screenshot and place it in the folder specified by you.

How to drag and drop in a web page using Selenium Web driver

Now if you want o drag and drop something o a web page, you would be confused. It is very simple. You have to make use of Actions class which gives you a method dragAndDrop() which will drag and drop a web element from a source destination to the desired destination.
Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
Actions. dragAndDrop(Sourcelocator, Destinationlocator).build().perform();
Make sure that the source locator and destination locator have correct xpaths. In this way, you will be able to drag and drop any element on a web page.

How to do right click and double click on a web page

You can do a right-click on a web page using Actions class. Actions class provides a doubleClick method which allows to double click on a web element. You can do it by following lines of code:

Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
WebElement elementLocator = driver.findElement(By.id(“ID”));
You have to do right-click in selenium using action class only. It is very easy. It provides a method – contextClick() and then right click on a web element.
Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
WebElement elementLocator = driver.findElement(By.id(“ID”));
This way, you will be able to right click and double click on a web element.
How to switch to an iFrame

iFrame is a web page which is embedded into another web page. Whenever you want to click on a web element, which is in another iframe. First, you have to switch to that iframe and then perform an action on it.
You can do switching by
Driver.switchTo().frame(index or name or id of iframe);
Before learning Selenium it’s better to have a thorough understanding of any object-oriented language. languages that Selenium support includes, Java, Perl, C#,  PHP, Ruby, and Python Currently.
We genuinely hope this tutorial has helped in understanding selenium better.

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Test Case Management in jira: How to do it?

Are you still slogging on to excel sheets to manage test cases?  Gone are the days when excel sheets were the only tool available to manage test cases. With the outburst of JIRA software, 66% of testers today leverage it to their benefit. So, why should you lag behind?

Going forward in this article we will discuss, everything that you should know to leverage JIRA Software for Test Case Management.

A quick overview of JIRA software

JIRA software is a product of Atlassian Corporation, an Australian enterprise software company. It is largely used for issue tracking, bug tracking, and project management. But many teams are now using it as a Test case manager as it allows testers and developers to remain at one platform. But, how can you use it for Test case management? Let’s check it out.

There are two ways that can help you to use JIRA for Test case management by:

1.    Configuring JIRA for Test case management

2.    Incorporating testing tools with JIRA

But before moving forward let’s have a look at various features of JIRA that assist test case management.

  • JIRA can help in manual testing and is a great tool for it.
  • Associated with defects and requirements.
  • Supports issue types such as user story and test case.
  • Offers multiple fixes for different versions.
  • Supports both manual and automatic issue assignment.
  • JIRA Workflow has the power to control developers, QA and tester actions.
  • Can incorporate source code.
  • Offers reporting facility.
  • Easy to customize.

1.    How to Customize JIRA for TCM?

You can customize JIRA software for test management in either of the ways:

  1. Using the “User story”
  2. Adding a “Test Case” issue

You can configure your JIRA software for test case management by using the User Story. Here’s how to proceed with it:

  • Generate a user story to act as a test case.
  • Further, add subtasks referring back to the user story (your subtasks here act as test cases or test runs)
  • If all the subtasks pass, then your user story is good to go for production. 

This approach raises a few challenges. The main challenges that you can face are:

  •  When you have to reuse the test cases: In JIRA software if you finish working on any issue, it is marked done and is closed. To reopen it and to convert it into the test case format requires a lot of efforts and maintenance overhead. So if you want to use any test case again, it becomes very complex.
  • When you have to align test cases: If you have multiple test cases that link to several user stories, it gets very difficult to align them.

Creating a Test Case Issue Type

You can configure your JIRA software for test case management by creating a Test Case issue type. Here’s how to proceed with it:

  • Add a test case issue type.
  • Add the required steps for testing.
  • Assign your test case as parent issue.
  • Create and label subtasks as “Test Run”.
  • Add outcomes, the assignee to run the test cases, the affected version under the “Test Run” subtask.

But creating a test case issue type possesses few challenges for the user. Here are the few challenges that can be faced by you:

  • When you have to reuse the test cases: As discussed above reusing test cases is a very complex process. 
  • When you have to rerun test cases: JIRA software requires you to add subtasks every time you have to run a test case.
  • When you have to create coverage reports: In JIRA software all the subtasks are mostly assigned under one issue. It is not possible to group various test runs to different configurations and to create a coverage report. 

2.    Incorporating testing tools with JIRA

Since JIRA is not custom made for test case management it possesses many limitations. To devoid it of its limitations, you can incorporate various testing tools with JIRA.

You can add testing functionalities to JIRA by the following two ways:

1.    Using Ad-ons

2.    By external integration of testing tools

  1. Using Ad-ons

Various Ad-ons are available on Atlassian Marketplace that helps enhance the functionalities of JIRA as a test case manager.

Eg: Zephyr for JIRA and Xray for JIRA promotes manual test execution.

qTest Scenario and Behave Pro assist TDD, BDD, and ATDD testing

  • Integrating test case management tools to JIRA

Test case management is one of the major tasks of STLC. Using an apt test case management tool can save you both on time and efforts. A number of test case management tools are available in the markets that can be externally integrated with JIRA, resulting in better test case management.

How can test case management tools help you?

  • They can help you to consolidate all your executions while you can also use JIRA.
  •  They can help you eliminate one of the biggest drawbacks of JIRA – reusing test cases. With test management tools you can reuse executions and help in better execution setup.
  •  They enhance the capabilities of JIRA by keeping the complete execution history inside JIRA.
  • They permit numerous test runs of the test cases with different configurations, assignees, results, etc.

Though deploying dedicated test case management system with JIRA offers the best experience. It also possesses some drawbacks. You can eliminate it by using the solution that offers the most optimal integration experience based on your requirements. 


The choice to pick one of the above-mentioned methods depends entirely on your requirements. We have curated a chart to help you judge your preference.


Selenium Automation Testing With Cucumber Integration

Selenium is a Web Automation Tool and can be used to do regressive automated testing to test any web application.
app testing
Selenium is a power tool though it lacks an ability to bridge the gap between business analyst and technical personnel.
If we follow the old requirement gathering process and obsolete software life cycle then there are maximum chances of building a completely different product as to what client expected.
This happens because of mis-interpretations and Cucumber solves them all. Cucumber is BDD driven framework which test any application on the basis of its behaviour.
It uses Simple Gherkin language which is easy to understand and communication gap would be eliminated.

Video Courtesy : Execute Automation
In this video we will be talking about an introduction to Cucumber and also an high level introduction on BDD and Gherkin.
Prerequisites for using Cucumber
 Before using Cucumber you should have some prerequisites in your system else Cucumber won’t run. Let’s see what those prerequisites are.
1. Selenium Jars.
2. Cucumber Jars : You can download from here. For other jars, just search in Maven repository and either you can download them or add their dependencies in your pom.xml. Following Jars are required:

  • cucumber-core
  • cucumber-java
  • cucumber-junit
  • cucumber-jvm-deps
  • cucumber-reporting
  • gherkin
  • junit
  • mockito-all
  • cobertura

3. Download Cucumber Eclipse plugin in Eclipse from Eclipse Marketplace.
First Project with Cucumber and Selenium
 Now let’s start with Cucumber and Selenium.

  • Create a Java Project with name “CucumberProject” in Eclipse.
  • Add all jars what you have downloaded in earlier section.
  • You can add Jars by clicking on Project -> Properties -> Java Build Path.
  • Now, you are all set to start with Cucumber Feature File. One can make Feature file by first creating a features folder inside the Project. Now, you can create a file inside the folder “Features” with name as “FirstTest.feature”.
  • Your first file is created and now you can start writing scenarios in it to test your web application.

Feature: Reset functionality on login page of Application
Scenario: Verification of Reset button
Given Open Google Chrome and launch the site
When Enter Username and Password
Then Reset the credential
And Close the Browser
The above Scenario explains you about the reset functionality. Line 1 tells you to open a browser which is Google Chrome and launch a a particular application. Next line says to enter the credentials in application. 3rd line says to reset the credentials and then close the browser.

  • Now, you need a test runner to run the feature file because feature file can’t run by itself. First you have to make a RunnerTest Package and then create a testRunner.java class in it.

package RunnerTest ;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
public class testRunner

Also Read : 15 Top Selenium WebDriver Commands For Test Automation

Annotations are used to start executing the test. @RunWith annotations helps in executing the test and @CucumberOptions  annotations is used to set properties of your cucumber tests.

  • Now your Feature file is ready and runner file as well. Now comes the test of actual implementation of the steps defined in the scenario. The file in which you will write the implementation of the steps of scenario is called Step Definition file.

Make a package named as StepDefinition in your Project Structure and add “TestSteps.java” file in it. Here, you will actually write your test script to test the application.
package StepDefinition;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;
public class TestSteps {
WebDriver driver;
@Given(“^Open Google Chrome and launch the site$”)
public void open_the_Firefox_and_launch_the_application() throws Throwable
System.setProperty(“webdriver.chrome.driver”,”Path of Chrome.exe file”);
driver = new ChromeDriver();
System.out.println(“This Step open Chrome and launch the site.”);
@When(“^Enter Username and Password$”)
public void enter_the_Username_and_Password() throws Throwable
System.out.println(“This step enter the credentials on the login page.”);
@Then(“^Reset the credential$”)
public void Reset_the_credential() throws Throwable
System.out.println(“This step click on the Reset button.”);
@Then(“^Close the Browser$”)
Public void Close_the_browser() throws Throwwable
System.out.println(“This step closes the browser”);
There are 5 main annotation tags which are uses in Cucumber:

  • Given : This is used for a pre condition.
  • When : This is used for an action which occurs after a pre condition.
  • Then : This occurs for a reaction for an event.
  • And: This adds a particular step in addition to the defined above.
  • But : This adds a negative step.

Whatever tags you will be using in Feature file; you will have to use the same tags in the step definition file. In this way each scenario would be mapped with the test steps defined in the step definition file.

  • Now comes the main step, how to run these files. You can run the feature files by right clicking on Test Runner file and click on “Run with” JUnit Test. When you will execute your test feature file you will observe that the Selenium test scripts start running and System.out.println is printing on the console.

Thus, you ran your tests script for a set of data with Cucumber. But if there is a scenario where you want data driven testing or you want to run the same scenario for three times and then only you can pass the data from feature file itself.
Feature: Reset functionality on login page of Application with 2 sets of data
Scenario: Verification of Reset button
Given Open Google Chrome and launch the site
When Enter Username and Password
|username | password |
|user1    | pass1    |
|user2    | pass2    |
Then Reset the credential
And Close the Brows
@When(“^Enter the Username \”(.*)\” and Password \”(.*)\”$”)
public void enter_the_Username_and_Password(String username,String password) throws Throwable
Only this step needs to be edited and the whole scenario would run for two number of times. This is called data driven testing with Cucumber.
Cucumber is a great tool used for BDD driven testing. This helps to make business analyst, client and technical people at a same level and thus bugs would decrease and the application will become more stable.
You just need to create simple Feature files which is written in English language ( Gherkin ) and thus your test scripts are ready.

Also Read10 Key Factors for Successful Test Automation