Improving Software Test Automation Using Different Algorithms

In order to deliver a flawless product to customers, software testing is a technique performed by software development organisations to assess the quality of the programme. To design the product, the needs of the customers and their recommendations are explored. The items must be supplied to the clients after adequate validation and verification, which lessens the burden on the firms after the products are released.

Introduction to Current Trends

The current trend in software testing that better meets industry demands is the growth of dependability models. Since verification and validation are carried out by distinct people in a typical testing procedure, efficient automation offers a stronger link between the two than does that approach. These automated processes are necessary for real-time applications since they form the core of unified testing, which also includes manual testing.

The technique of manual testing is used to examine the system design and find problems based on test cases. It takes a testing developer with the necessary understanding to complete this repetitious procedure. An automated testing environment is created with multiple levels of abstraction under various domains and a wide variety of diversity rules in order to eliminate the problems with manual testing. Industry-wide automated testing’s overarching goal is to speed up computations and cut costs.

Mobile app test cost calculator

Concept required to grow the Business

Many businesses still use outdated test automation techniques that have negative effects, such as the inability to automate useful tests, produce and maintain automated tests at the lowest possible cost, or promptly identify errors. Such unfavourable consequences prevent businesses from gaining the benefits of test automation they anticipate, use up resources for software development, and potentially jeopardise software quality. “Increasing immature test automation processes with poor effects” is referred to as “improving test automation maturity” in the software industry and research community.

Although there have been more initiatives in the software industry to promote test automation maturity, not all of these efforts have been successful. According to a recent poll on software testing practises, around 65% of the almost 2000 software businesses worldwide sought to increase test automation maturity, but only about half said their efforts were successful. To develop test automation maturity effectively, the industry requires the guidelines.

Software testing, which is based on standard verification over static and dynamic environments, aids in improving product design. In a static environment, verification is carried out using formal processes and methods, but in a dynamic environment, verification is carried out at any level using test cases. Dynamic analysis is more effective than static analysis and can spot mistakes in product design.

Early-stage testing decreases product problems by discovering defects and reducing product failure after implementation. Software testing makes use of straightforward tests and code procedures to cut down on mistakes at every level of the programme. When it comes to the verification and validation processes, the selection of the best product is examined in the former, whilst the product’s qualities are examined in the latter. It enables the client or user to examine the programme that has been created and make necessary corrections to meet their demands.

Read Also: How AI will Change the Software Testing

Data on the item or service being evaluated is gathered during the software testing process. Running programmes or apps while testing allows you to find and repair bugs. The process of developing test cases is crucial for getting the most out of the system and spotting as many errors as possible early. Throughout the whole software development process, this is the most economical use of time and resources. Automated testing is unable to carry out comprehensive testing.

Recent work on a novel application using the Intelligent Security and Automation System (ISAS) architecture has revealed that robotic testing dramatically cuts the price and time required for trials, which is crucial for monitoring a project’s development. It is critical to adhere to the evaluation approach in order to construct the best test suites.

Aspects and Objective

The most important stage of any product development is testing. The testing stage serves as the last checkpoint for any rejections or commission errors. Testing computer programmes is a little more challenging than practising a framework to make sure it functions as intended. When in doubt, it is critical to keep in mind that each inquiry, audit, survey, or walkabout is a test. If there have been more successful static testing attempts, there will be less problems with dynamic testing. IT has frequently demonstrated that the incremental cost of resolving an issue decreases with the speed with which it is identified and fixed. The process of testing starts with the representation of an item. All evolutionary algorithms yield results that are close to those of the Genetic Algorithm. When exposed to a certain set of environmental circumstances, tests are done to make sure that a product or service satisfies specified requirements.

There are two aspects to this objective. The main objective of this fragment is to confirm the accuracy of the requirements point of interest for the item. The settings and code are excellent fits for every criterion, as shown in the second part. For a job to be deemed exact, all affirmation requirements must be satisfied.

Read Also: What is Cloud Testing? Why is Cloud Testing Important

Problems in software test automation

The following actions are mainly responsible for problems in software test automation:

Unfounded hopes for automated testing

It goes without saying that test automation has several advantages. Most significantly, it saves time, energy, and resources for the QA team. Does this not imply that increasing the number of procedures that are automated would increase efficiency? Not exactly. People’s unrealistic test automation expectations can ruin the entire testing process.

Manual testing is important. Manual testing should never be disregarded. In certain cases, manual testing of an application is far superior to developing automated test scripts.

Manual testing is appropriate for:

  • Usability testing for UI
  • Quick compatibility testing using, say, one or two devices
  • One-off tests
  • Ad-hoc analysis
  • Testing for both localization (L10N) and internationalisation (I18N).

There are still manual testing components. Those who support automated test scripts are necessary. Therefore, even if you insist on automating as much of your testing as possible, there will still be manual tasks to complete.

  • Solution: A well-defined testing plan.

Using inappropriate tools

If the proper tools are not used, test automation will not be efficient. With so many testing options available, it is simple to become misled. The poor tool selection might lead to scalability issues in addition to the failure to achieve your initial test automation goals.

  • Solution: Make judicious tool selections.

Automate pointless tests while ignoring crucial test cases

Unfortunately, QA teams frequently begin the automation process by arbitrarily automating test cases. They now have an excessive number of pointless tests and little test coverage. Additionally, by using this method, you run the danger of not include all pertinent cases and having poor software quality.

  • Solution: Determine what is worth automating.

Incorrect testing window

Many teams still consider testing to be something that happens after development. QAs begin their work only when the entire build has been completed. This antiquated method cannot ensure excellent software quality. It does not allow QAs to adequately test all levels, and there is typically not much time left for testing.

  • Solution: Run automated tests concurrently with development.

Inadequate testing

This is the most difficult of the test automation difficulties. A lack of appropriate testing arises when QAs depend too heavily on automation and focus on passing tests rather than detecting issues. The problem is that automation creates a false sense of security. It is tempting to limit human interaction and accountability for the outcomes when automated tests run regularly. Such an approach has disastrous consequences, such as poor test design and inconsistent and inefficient testing.

  • Solution: Training for the QA staff.

Improving test automation using genetic algorithm

Software should be tested once it has been created. A study by NIST indicates that software flaws have a significant negative impact. As a result, the test stage of software development is one of the most delicate stages and accounts for around 50% of the total cost. The cost of software testing has been greatly reduced by the introduction of automated software testing tools since it uses a lot of resources but does not offer any new functionality to the product. Various techniques for automatic software testing have been developed over the past ten years with the goal of maximising error detection while generating the fewest amount of test input data possible.

One of the algorithms that has been extensively employed in the area of test data creation automation is the genetic algorithm. Traditional genetic algorithms are effective at producing useful test sets, but they take a long time. Applying prior knowledge to the issue or including a local search phase in the evolutionary cycle can help to some extent. Chromosomes do not attempt to enhance themselves; instead, they only wait for a mutation or recombination to haphazardly improve them. This is a notable flaw in the genetic algorithm. Additionally, the genetic algorithm treats each segment of a chromosome as a whole and does not distinguish between its many sub-sections. Due of this, a genetic search is extremely comparable to a blind search.

The advantages of genetic algorithms are as follows:

  • They exhibit an unpredictable pattern that can be statistically assessed but cannot be precisely predicted (i.e., stochastic).
  • Another area where it thrives is big data. It works well with probabilistic and non-deterministic rules.
  • It’s an excellent tool for simultaneously optimising several objectives. This method has certain shortcomings.
  • It can take a lot of time, use a lot of computer resources, and be difficult to create objective functions.
Improving test automation using AI

Automation of the testing procedure and quality control results in considerable time and resource savings. However, there are a few things to think about when using AI and machine learning for test automation. We go through the six factors to take into account when using artificial intelligence and machine learning for test automation.

1. Visual evaluation testing (UI)

Software engineers do visual testing as part of their quality control procedures. They assess if the application functions and appears as intended for the user. Understanding the sorts of patterns that machine learning can detect is crucial. Manual inspectors are better able to spot imperfections, whether they are noticeable, aesthetic, or functional.

While analysing complicated surface textures and picture quality, a typical machine vision system may need a thorough review. Therefore, visual assessment of online or mobile apps is better suited for a deep learning tool or system.

Read Also: A Study Towards Regression Testing Techniques and Tools

It delivers quick and precise outcomes. Developers can rely on this technology in situations when human intervention might be deemed dangerous. Developers may eliminate manual testing and immediately find visual issues by implementing a quick machine learning test.

2. API Testing

Software testing of the Application Programming Interface (API) allows data flow and communication between two software systems. The benefit of API testing is that it is more accurate than UI testing at identifying application flaws. When the test fails, it is simpler to examine the source code. It can withstand application modification, which facilitates automation.

To get thorough test coverage while testing at the API level, you require a greater level of technical know-how and equipment. Additionally, software testers need to be knowledgeable in their respective fields. It is crucial to take into account if testers have a thorough understanding of various application interfaces.

AI allows you to transform manual UI testing into automated API tests that handle all the labor-intensive tasks. You will be able to connect the actions taken in UI tests to API tests as a novice.

3. Domain expertise

In software testing, domain knowledge is essential. With artificial intelligence, you can test apps more effectively whether they are subjected to human or automated testing. For instance, developing test scripts in Java, Python, or C# might be difficult. Advanced testing technologies allow the creation of test scripts and codes by testers. AI enables robots to self-write faultless code.

Manual testing is preferable to handle complicated test scenarios, though. You would be able to determine when to execute test cases using manual or automated testing if you had sufficient domain expertise. Knowing how the application will function and help the company is crucial when implementing AI in test automation. We should typically anticipate failure in results while executing test automation. No matter how little, important, or serious the application fault is, it must be easy for QA teams to scale it.

4. AI Spidering

Writing test scripts for test automation is most frequently done via spidering. It contains a feature that allows you to use AI/ML technologies to direct users to your web application. The application then automatically starts to crawl over itself while scanning and gathering data.

As you perform tests, the tools gradually assemble a dataset and develop patterns for your application. When you use this tool again, it will identify possible problems by referring to its collection of patterns and behaviour.

Though some of the distinctions might not be relevant, keep that in mind. In this instance, a subject matter expert will need to confirm whether the problem that ML has identified is a bug or not.

Understanding which components of an application should be evaluated will be made easier by spidering AI. Simply said, machine learning will handle difficult jobs, and a tester will need to confirm the accuracy of the output.

5. Test Scripts

When a code has been changed, it will be challenging for software testers to estimate how many tests are necessary. Artificial intelligence-based automated testing solutions can determine if a given application needs numerous tests or not.

The use of AI in testing has two advantages. You can save extra time by ceasing to run tests that are not necessary. It is practical to evaluate a system’s overall performance without running the test scripts again. As a result, you don’t need to manually check on it every time.

6. Automated Tests by Robots (RPA)

RPA is the name given to software that automates repetitive commercial tasks without involving any human beings. It assists in fully maintaining and automating the interfaces already present in IT systems. RPA scans the screen, uses the systems to traverse, then locates and collects data.

The tests may be run via online, desktop, or mobile apps, and the duties are entirely handled by the bots. It assists with test data setup and regression test execution.

RPA testing initiatives are undoubtedly being taken by many businesses. However, business testing is powered by RPA, which may reduce the amount of testing that testers complete. Scalability, codeless testing, cost savings, higher productivity, precise findings, and adaptability are among RPA’s key benefits.

Artificial intelligence can automate about half of the test procedures. Machine learning may be used by testers to train systems to find mistakes that manual testing might miss. You may speed up the process of getting reliable findings by incorporating AI into your test automation. Since AI handles the majority of the testing procedure, you can save time.

Automation has a significant impact on the software industry’s ability to increase test efficiency. Projects use extra people for manual testing or utilise automation tools or techniques to increase the amount of test automation in order to ensure test coverage satisfaction and hence lower risk. The option relies on whether the project cycle time or test time is reduced. The significance and necessity of automating software testing have grown as a result of rising software usage, increasingly complicated software functionalities, and shorter timeframes for evaluating programme quality. By applying machine learning to automate software testing, mistakes in manual testing are reduced and assessment is sped up.

Because it helps software testing companies to boost their test efficiency, automation is essential in the software business. In order to assess created software with a range of drawbacks, a number of automated approaches have been conceived to provide test data, approaches based on genetic algorithms being one of them.

A Study Towards Regression Testing Techniques and Tools

Regression testing verifies that no new mistakes have been added to the programme after the adjustments have been made by testing the modified portions of the code and the portions that may be impacted due to the alterations. Regression is the term for anything coming back, and in the context of software, it refers to a defect.

When should you do regression tests?

1. When a new feature is added to the system and the code is changed to accommodate and incorporate that feature with the current code.
2. When a software flaw has been found and is being fixed by debugging the code.
3. When a code change is made to improve performance.

App Bug fixing

Regression testing procedure:

Initially, anytime we make changes to the source code for whatever reason—such as adding new functionality or optimising existing code—our software fails in the previously created test suite for apparent reasons when it is run. After the failure, the source code is debugged to find the program’s faults. The necessary changes are done after finding the problems in the source code. Then suitable test cases are chosen from the test suite that already exists and covers all the updated and impacted portions of the source code. If more test cases are needed, we can add them. Regression testing is ultimately carried out utilising the chosen test cases.

Regression testing procedure

  • All test cases are chosen with in this manner from the test suite that is already in place. Although it is the simplest and safest method, it is not very effective.
  • Randomly choose test cases: This strategy involves choosing test cases at random from the test suite already in place; however, it is only effective when every test case has an equal capacity to identify faults, which is extremely uncommon. Because of this, it is rarely used.
  • Choose test cases that cover and test the updated portions of the source code and the parts that are affected by these modifications are chosen in this approach.
  • Pick higher priority test cases: In this method, each test case in the test suite is given a priority code based on its capacity to identify bugs, client requirements, etc. The test cases with the greatest priorities are chosen for regression testing after giving the priority codes.The test case with the highest priority is ranked first. A test case with priority code 2 is less significant than one with priority code 1, for instance.

Read Also: Difference Between Regression Testing and Retesting

  • Tools for regression testing: In regression testing, we often choose test cases from the current test suite itself, ; so, we don’t need to compute their expected outcome and it can thus be readily automated. Automating the regression testing process will be extremely effective and time saving.

The following are the most often used regression testing tools:

  • Selenium
  • WATIR (Web Application Testing In Ruby)
  • QTP (Quick Test Professional)
  • RFT (Rational Functional Tester)
  • Winrunner
Regression testing provides the following benefits:
  • It makes sure that no new defects have been created after the system has received new functionality.
  • Since the majority of the test cases chosen for regression testing are already part of the test suite, their anticipated results are known. As a result, automated tools may readily automate it.
  • It aids in preserving the source code’s quality.
The drawbacks of regression testing include:
  • If automated tools are not employed, it may take a lot of time and resources.
  • Even after relatively minor modifications to the code, it is necessary.


It is one of the best automated tools for testing web applications for regression. You may use Selenium Web Driver to create robust browser-based regression automation suites and tests.

A selection of Selenium’s functionalities is available for automating web applications. It is still one of the best tools available for cross platform and browser-based regression testing. Data-driven testing and automated test scripts that cycle over data sets are supported by Selenium. For large-scale quality assurance teams with knowledgeable testers, this is the right course of action. However, small and mid-size teams struggle with its high learning curve.

Features of the Tool:

  1. Selenium supports several OSs, browsers, and environments.
    It works with many different programming languages and testing frameworks.
  2. It is, without a doubt, a fantastic tool for performing regular regression testing.

Read Also: Optimum Software Developer to Software Tester Ratio?

WATIR (Web Application Testing In Ruby)

A Ruby programming language-based open-source package, Watir stands for Web Application Testing in Ruby. It allows for the creation ofto create and maintain simple-to-read and maintain tests on a light and adaptable user interface.

Watir enables a range of user interaction features for website testing, including the ability to click links, complete forms and validate texts across a number of browsers.

Features of the Tool:

  • Extremely portable and user-friendly gadget
  • Excellent browser interaction features are included with this programme.
  • Designed to test web applications.
    Enables the creation of understandable, maintainable, and easy automated tests.
  • Support for cross-platform technologies
    Numerous large corporations, like SAP, Oracle, Facebook, etc., use it
  • Technology independent

QTP (Quick Test Professional)

It is an automated functional testing tool that consumes high resources and requires a license. QTP provides customer support in the form of selenium community forums. For parameterization in QTP, built-in tools are available. QTP supports only Windows and VB Script. There is support for testing on both web and desktop-based applications. There is built-in test report generation within the tool QTP, and there is a built-in object repository in QTP. QTP is user-friendly, and there is a build-in recovery scenario in QTP. Browsers supported in QTP are specific versions of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Internet Explorer.

Benefits of Automation using QTP

  • It allows for recording and replay.
  • It allows testers refer to the screen object attributes when recording scripts on an active screen.
  • It has a great system or procedure for identifying objects.
  • It supports a variety of add-ins, including those from PeopleSoft, Oracle, Java, SAP, NET, and others.
  • Through an active screen, you may improve the current tests even without the AUT.
  • It supports well-known automation frameworks, including data-driven testing, modular testing, and keyword testing.
    It has an internal IDE.
  • It can be connected with test management programmes like Winrunner, Quality Center, and Test Director.
  • It is simple to manage several suite kinds, including Smoke, Regression, and Sanity.
  • It works with XML.
  • Through QTP, test reporting is possible for analytical purposes.
    Easily maintained.

RFT (Rational Functional Tester)

An object-oriented automated functional testing tool called Rational Functional Tester can run automated functional, regression, GUI, and data-driven tests. HTML, Java,.NET, Windows, Eclipse, SAP, Siebel, Flex, Silverlight, Visual Basic, Dojo, GET, and PowerBuilder programmes are just a few of the many applications and protocols that RFT supports.


The following are the primary advantages of Rational Functional Tester:

  • Reusability: Tests may be immediately performed on several iterations of an application, cutting down on the time required for regression testing.
  • Consistency: The exact same actions will be taken each time an RFT script-based test is executed.
  • Productivity: Automated testing is quick and flexible, requiring no additional resources.
  • Rational Team Concert and Rational Clear Case are two source control management technologies that RFT interfaces with. Users may manage their RFT functional test assets using either Rational Clear Case or Rational Team Concert by integrating RFT with these source control management programs.
  • RFT and Rational Quality Manager have excellent integration. Users may run test scripts from within Rational Quality Manager after integrating RFT with RQM using the adaptor.


  • Broad skills match: The RFT tool is designed for users with a range of technical skills to ensure that your quality assurance team is not limited to basic testing and that other subject matter experts in your company can participate in and comprehend the test flow using a visual storyboard format.
  • New software versions can employ user interface features that technology has learned, reducing time spent writing new test scripts.
  • Automated scripts – Rational Functional Tester gives your development teams the ability to write scripts with keyword associations that are simple to reuse, increasing productivity.
  • Using the Eclipse Java Developer Toolkit editor, your team may quickly and easily develop Java test scripts. It includes sophisticated debugging features and automates code completion

Read Also: How Much Does App Testing Cost?


For functional testing, Win Runner is a popular automated software testing tool. Mercury Interactive created it. C and web technologies including VB, VC++, D2K, Java, HTML, Power Builder, Delphe, and Cibell (ERP) are supported. WinRunner makes it simple to create tests by capturing your application development process. You may navigate your application’s GUI (Graphical User Interface) elements by pointing and clicking.

A test script written in the C-like Test Script Language is generated by WinRunner. With hand programming, we can improve our test scripts even further. The Function Generator, which is part of WinRunner, makes it simple and quick to add functions to our recorded tests.

The crucial features of WinRunner include:

  • We are able to do functional and regression testing on a range of application software created in languages, including PowerBuilder, Visual Basic, C/C++, and Java. Additionally, we are able to test ERP/CRM software programs.
  • Runs tests on many browser settings, including Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator, as well as all versions of the Windows operating system.
  • In the “record” mode, we may record GUI operations. A test script is automatically generated by WinRunner.
    To compare actual and anticipated outcomes, we can add checkpoints. Bitmap checkpoints, GUI checkpoints, and web links are some examples of the checkpoints.
  • It offers a tool for test case synchronization.
    A recorded test may be transformed into a data-driven test using Data Driver Wizard. So, within a test script, we may swap out data for variables.
  • During automated testing, database checkpoints are utilised to validate data in a database. We will maintain database integrity and transaction correctness by highlighting the records that are added, removed, changed, or updated.
  • WinRunner is taught to detect, record, and replay custom objects using the Virtual Object Wizard.
  • The reporting tools offer the ability to create test results automatically and examine flaws.
  • Many testing-related tasks may be automated by integrating WinRunner with the testing management programme, TestDirector.


Silk Test is a solution for corporate application regression and function testing. It was first created by Segue Software, which Borland purchased in 2006. Micro Focus International purchased Borland in 2009. QA Partner was the original name of the product from 1993 to 1996.

Silk Test provides a range of clients:

  • Silk Test Workbench supports visual automated testing (much like the previous TestPartner) and uses the VB.Net scripting language.
  • For automated scripting, Silk Test Classic makes use of the domain-specific 4Test language. Similar to C++, it is an object-oriented language. Classes, objects, and inheritance are all used.
  • UFT Developer, formerly known as Silk4J, enables automation in Eclipse using Java as the scripting language.
  • UFT Developer, formerly Silk4Net, enables the same functionality in Visual Studio using VB or C#.


An essential component of software development processes is test automation. Similar to this, automated regression testing is regarded as a crucial component.

Product teams may obtain more detailed feedback and react immediately with a speedy regression testing procedure. Regression testing finds new vulnerabilities early in the deployment cycle, saving firms the expense and work of fixing the accumulated flaws. Apparently, a little change can occasionally have a cascading effect on the product’s essential capabilities.

Because of this, developers and testers must not let any modification—no matter how small—that falls outside of their sphere of influence.
Functional tests don’t take into account how new features and capabilities interact with the old ones; they merely look at how they behave. Therefore, determining the main cause and the product’s architecture is more challenging and time-consuming without regression testing.

Web Application Testing Manually (Step by Step A Complete Guide)

Web applications are a subset of application software, and application software is nothing more than the applications that consumers utilise. Every day, we utilise web applications, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Amazon, and online portals; everything falls under the category of web applications. Software testing is a component of the software development process and an activity that detects and identifies faults in software. The primary goal of testing is to deliver a quality product to the client.

Manual testing is the process of comparing the behaviour of created code (software, module, API, feature, etc.) to the intended behaviour (requirements). In Manual Web Application Testing, when it comes to web apps, there is a lot that goes into creating world-class user experiences. Naturally, it all starts with extensive manual software testing. As a result, manual testing is an essential component of any comprehensive software testing process.

What exactly is manual testing?

Manual testing of web applications is the process of executing test cases by hand. This type of testing occurs in the absence of automated technologies. In reality, because Web Application Manual Evaluating necessitates manually testing a software product, the end product is precise. Testers check for faults that may interfere with the app’s usability. Manual testing is used by businesses to validate their products. Similarly, businesses attempt to analyse and qualify a web app product based on factors, such as correctness, completeness, usability, efficiency, and others.

Manual software testing is the first step in creating pleasing user interfaces. Manual testing is used by businesses as a fundamental strategy to producing high-quality software products. Businesses seldom believe in complete automation. This is due to the fact that comprehensive automation comes with a number of financial and time restrictions. Manual testing, albeit labour demanding, is a vital requirement for determining automation viability. Manual testers help firms uncover flaws and gain a realistic understanding of how customers will interact with their online apps.

Read Also: Manual or Automated Testing: Which to Use?

Why is manual testing essential in the development of web applications?

Manual software testing is the secret sauce in the majority of web app development projects’ testing phases. When it comes to testing web apps for aesthetic concerns, automated testing technologies are ineffective. Human sensitivity is the best judge of things, like gestures, image colour, letter size, and so on. As a result, automated testing makes it harder to validate a web app’s User Experience and User Interface.

  • Efficiency

Manual testing successfully overcomes the constraints introduced by automated testing. As a result, app development teams focused on user experience and GUIs that are regularly evolving rely significantly on manual testing to ensure success.

When teams are creating apps from the ground up in the early phases of web app development, the majority of features are in active deployment. It is preferable to begin with manual testing during this time. Because, when it comes to manual testing, one key benefit is its seamless execution for bespoke modules based on business needs. Manual testing can be accomplished with ease and perfection without the need of any fancy code or sophisticated applications.

  • Cost effective

When compared to expensive test automation technologies, the cost of manual testing is significantly less. Integrating the high-level expertise required to run automation tools is an added cost. Manual testing abilities are easy to learn and cost less money. Furthermore, manual testing is easier to implement.

Read Also: How to Improve Your Manual Testing Skills ?

In the event of unanticipated changes in the web app development process, manual testing is a readily flexible and well-suited solution. It’s also a good option for developers who need to test the web app after making modifications. Human observation and intuition can be used during manual testing. It contributes significantly to the overall consumer experience.

Furthermore, manual exploratory testing assists firms in proactively searching for edge situations and unanticipated concerns. Manual testers will occasionally hand-code tests. Hand-coded test suites might take many weeks to complete. In such circumstances, manual testing gives organisations with immediate benefits.

Manual Web Application Testing Techniques

The following are the many forms of Manual Testing for Web Applications that firms must perform:

1. Black Box or Functional Testing:-

The internal details of a programme are not accessible during functional testing, and the software is viewed as a black box. A test engineer is solely concerned with the component of the programme that is visible outside of the programme, namely input and output.

A test engineer adds input to a programme, examines the program’s externally visible output, and decides whether or not the programme output is the intended output. The program’s requirements definition and the attributes of the program’s input and output domains are used to pick inputs. A test engineer is only concerned with the functionality and features specified in the programme specification.

2. White Box or Structural Testing:-

In structural testing, the attention is mostly on source code, with a particular emphasis on control flow and data flow. The flow of control from one command to another is referred to as control flow.

Control can be passed from one instruction to another in a variety of methods, including one instruction after another, function calls, message passing, and interrupts. Conditional statements disrupt the program’s typical, sequential flow of control. The transmission of values from one variable or constant to another variable is referred to as data flow. The data flow component of a programme is determined by the definitions and usage of variables.

Read Also: Top 10 Manual Testing Tools

3. Unit Testing:-

Unit testing is the isolation of programme units. However, there is no agreement on what constitutes a unit. Functions, processes and techniques are examples of frequently known units. A class in an object-oriented programming language can also be thought of as a programme unit.

A programme unit is a piece of code, such as a function or class method, that is executed from outside the unit and can invoke additional programme units. Furthermore, it is believed that a programme unit will implement a well-defined function that will provide a certain amount of abstraction to the implementation of higher level functions. A programme unit’s function may or may not be directly related to a system-level function.

4. System Testing:-

System testing is the process of validating the entire and fully integrated software product. A system test is used to examine the end-to-end system requirements. Typically, software is just one component of a broader computer-based system.

Finally, the programme is linked to other software/hardware systems. System testing is described as a sequence of tests designed only to exercise the entire computer-based system.

5. Integration Testing:-

Integration testing is a sort of testing in which software modules are conceptually integrated and evaluated as a group. A typical software project comprises of several software modules written by various programmers. The goal of this level of testing is to identify flaws in the interaction of various software components when they are integrated.

Integration testing focuses on data transfer between these modules. As a result, it is also known as ‘I & T’ (Integration and Testing), ‘String Testing,’ and, on occasion, ‘Thread Testing.’ Software developers and integration test engineers collaborate to do integration testing. The goal of integration testing is to build a relatively stable system capable of withstanding the rigours of system-level testing.

Read Also: How to Do Security Testing For Web Applications

6. Acceptance Testing:-

Acceptance testing is a formal test that is performed to assess whether a system meets its acceptance criteria—the requirements that the system must meet in order to be approved by the client. It assists the client in deciding whether to accept or reject the system. If the acceptance test cases fail, the client normally has the right to refuse delivery of the product.

7. Regression Testing:-

Regression testing is another type of testing that occurs throughout a system’s life cycle. When a system component is changed, regression testing is undertaken. The main goal of regression testing is to ensure that the update did not create any new flaws in the area that was not modified.

To be more specific, regression testing is not a separate level of testing. New tests are not developed during regression testing. Instead, tests are chosen, prioritised, and performed from an existing pool of test cases to guarantee that nothing breaks in the new software version. Regression testing is a costly procedure that consumes the majority of testing effort in the industry.

8. Smoke Testing:-

Smoke testing enters the picture when the developer team delivers build software. The goal of smoke testing is to discover whether or not the built programme is testable. It is done during the “software development” process. This is often referred to as “Day 0.” It is a time-saving method.

It minimises testing time since testing is done only when the application’s essential functionalities are not working or when key issues are not addressed. The workflow of the application’s main and key functions is the focus of Smoke testing.

9. Performance Testing:-

It is the most crucial aspect of non-functional testing. This testing generally describes how rapidly the server replies to the user’s request. While performing performance testing on the application, we will focus on numerous elements, such as response time, load, and application stability. We will do performance testing after the programme has been stabilised and transferred to production, and it may be used by numerous users concurrently, which may cause some performance concerns. The tester does one round of performance testing to avoid these performance concerns.

10. Load Testing:-

Load testing is an essential part of performance testing that is used to evaluate the software’s performance by applying some load. We also learn about its technique, why we need to perform load testing, the purpose of load testing, examples, different load testing strategies, and the benefits and drawbacks.

In non-functional software testing, load testing is an integral component of performance testing. Load testing is the process of assessing the performance of an application by introducing a load that is less than or equal to the desired load.

11. Stress Testing:-

Stress testing is an important aspect of performance testing and is used to evaluate an application’s behaviour by delivering a load larger than the anticipated load. We also learn about its procedure, why we need to undertake stress testing, goal of stress testing, examples, various elements of stress testing, and the benefits and drawbacks.

12. Endurance Testing:-

Endurance testing involves assessing the system’s performance under various load situations over an extended period of time. Endurance testing is an important component of non-functional testing. It is also known as Soak testing and Lifespan testing in general. Endurance testing is performed at the end of the performance run cycle. We conducted endurance testing to measure the reaction of a tested component under probable duplicated scenarios for a particular load and time. Simply said, the term “endurance” is used to indicate something’s ability to last, which is also known as durability, ability, or endurance.

13. Exploratory Testing:-

If no need exists, we do one round of exploratory testing. So, for this, we will first explore the application in all conceivable ways, learning the application’s flow, producing a test document, and then testing the application; this method is known as exploratory testing. If we want to understand an application, we will first perform unit or component testing.

For example, if the application has a login page with many elements, we will understand each part and perform component testing, but we are actually doing exploratory testing because we are exploring the application.


Manual testing has been determined to be the mother of all sorts of testing since it necessitates extensive knowledge from the inside out, and all other types of testing stem from manual testing. Much of the testing literature is riddled with jargon, which is understandable given that testing technology has evolved over decades and through the efforts of dozens of writers.

Testing is critical to obtaining and assessing the quality of a software product. On the one hand, we increase product quality by repeating a test-find-defect-fix cycle during development. When we do system-level testing before releasing a product, we analyse how good our system is.

15 Top Security Testing Companies – 2022 Update

In search of top security testing companies for validating your app/software’s security defenses?

you have reached the right place. please read on

  1. TestBytes

TestBytes offers wide-ranging information security testing services. The expert security testing services by TestBytes ensure the strengthened security of their client’s systems.

Their streamlined security testing ensures that even the most difficult vulnerabilities are discovered during the testing. Testbytes have a globally spread clientele when it comes to security testing.

They have a large group of in-house as well as remote testers to take care of any kind of work.

They also have a strong social media presence with lots of ongoing active discussions.

  • Standards-based security testing (OWASP top 10 SANS Top 25, OSSTM, NIST 800-15, etc.)
  • Threat modeling
  • Vulnerability assessment
  • Ajax Testing Session
  • Network testing
  • Penetration testing
  • Authorization testing Web services testing
  • Data validation testing
  • Denial of service testing
  • Authentication testing
  • management testing
  • Configuration testing
  • Code review
  • Compliance testing
  1. QA Mentor

QA Mentor is a CMMI Level 3 SVC + SSD v1.3 appraised, ISO 27001:2013, ISO 9001:2015, and ISO 20000-1 certified internationally acclaimed Software security testing company.

It caters to 9 different industries. The company supports a crowdsourcing platform and has a group of 12,000 crowdsourced testers.

It offers matchless and inexpensive services and is continuing to progress, enlarge and leave its imprint around the globe.

It has received many awards and recognition for its impeccable works in the field of software testing.

It has made its mark in the field of security testing and has helped many businesses around the globe to find security vulnerabilities in their software.

  1. KiwiQA

KiwiQA Services provides various testing solutions and services to various industries. It has its expertise in implementable and risk management solutions.

KiwiQA has been offering first-rate testing services for many years. ​They deliver cost-effective, value-added testing services.

KiwiQA has high expertise in Test Automation, Specialized Testing Services, Testing Consultancy, and Managed Testing Services.

It has received many awards and recognition for its extraordinary testing services.

KiwiQA has a QA team of 100+ full-time Software testers and has completed 2000+ projects.

It has special domain expertise in cybersecurity testing and has helped many companies strengthen their IT cybersecurity.

  1. ImpactQA

ImpactQA is a prominent security Testing company (ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 27001 certified and a Nasscom member) and QA Consultant. They have a 250+ satisfied customer base.

They have established their expertise in various testing domains like Performance testing, Automation testing, Cloud testing, Mobile app testing, IoT testing, DevOps testing, Security testing, and AI testing.

Veteran test engineers of ImpactQA utilize smart tools and techniques to offer customer-centric services to their clients.
ImpactQAs security testing services have strengthened the cybersecurity of many industries.

Awarded as a top QA consultant and software tester, ImpactQA has rightly become the prominent choice of many companies looking out for software testers.

  1. Eminence Square (The testing hub)

Eminence Square (The testing hub) has set its mark in software testing engineering and guarantees that software meets both functional and non-functional requirements.

They use contemporary tools like Selenium Remote Control, Selenium IDE, Selenium WebDriver, JMeter, ZAP, etc. to ensure high-end testing results.

A perfect blend of manual and automation testing is their strength that helps them get expert testing and ensure high-end quality assurance.

Catering to clients from various industries, they have ensured their wide spectrum abilities. Their expertise in security testing has made them a veteran cybersecurity testers.

  1. Avyaan 

Avyaan is an expert cybersecurity testing company that ensures high-grade digital security to its clients.

With expert security testers, and the latest technologies they offer first-class cybersecurity testing solutions to ensure apps that have minimum infiltration risk.

They keep updating themselves with the latest happening in the hacking industry hence ensuring extensive security testing, leaving no loopholes for the hackers to intrude into the system.

  1. Security Brigade

Security Brigade is a veteran security testing company in India specializing in Web-Application Security Testing Services.

Their modern approach to security testing ensures the highest level of security from any threats and vulnerabilities.

A good mix of automated and manual testing results in the best testing of the applications.

They follow a streamlined approach to security testing mapping your business logic and web-application data flow to recognize workflow-associated vulnerabilities.

  1. Think future technologies

Think future technology is a leading security testing company.

Having a deep insight into every aspect of security testing, they transform their understanding into an effective testing approach.

They help organizations secure their businesses from unauthorized access and data breaches.

Their highly trained and expert team carries out the complete process of security testing in a very managed and expert way.

They guarantee the security of your business following various security testing techniques.

  1. Angler

Angler is an expert security testing company helping its clients strengthen their digital assets to avoid any cyber threats.

Their skilled team of software security testers helps you secure your application from unauthorized penetration and security violation. They ensure your software is free from any vulnerability and identify the weak points that could be exploited by hackers. They ensure the security of your applications from any data leaks, static and dynamic masking. With their veteran security testing services, they ensure:

  • Trust of customers
  • Security of Business information
  • Risk mitigation
  • Improved Quality levels
  • Meet regulatory requirements
  • Maintain corporate image
  • Avoid network downtime cost
  1. Pristine Info solutions 

Pristine, offers world-class security testing services to its clients to defend them against cyber-attacks and to provide them with a highly secured environment.

They assist organizations in reducing risks by protecting their information assets.

Pristine InfoSolutions in-depth Security testing services are specifically customized to recognize, evaluate, and enhance the overall security of the company.

  • Improved security of the business
  • Protected business data
  • Mitigate security risk
  • Streamlined security for the company
  • Flexible and customized services
  • Improved ROI on security
  • Reliable, scalable, and resilient solutions
  • Assured data privacy
  1. Cigniti

Cigniti has established its expertise in Security Testing catering to a variety of businesses.

Cigniti has vast experience in helping a variety of organizations of different sizes to strengthen their security.

They help businesses uncover vulnerabilities in their software and ensure reduced risks of security threats

  • Certified Ethical Hackers
  • Provide hacker’s eye view
  • Identify zero-day vulnerabilities
  • Domain-specific testing
  • Expertise in intrusive tests
  • Manual verification

12. A1QA

A1QA is a renowned software testing firm specializing in security testing.

It ensures that your software is ready to successfully avert any security threats or attacks and meet the specified guidelines.

Their services in security testing include,

  • Vulnerability assessment
  • Compliance testing
  • Security penetration testing
  • Social engineering
  • Static code analysis
  • Pre-certification security audit

They ensure that they have gathered the required information about the software to be tested so that their team can provide the best security testing.

13. Kualitatem

Winner of many awards, Kualitatem is one of the best companies for your security testing requirements.

It holds a wide experience of working with some of the security giants like HP, Symantec, McAfee, and IBM.

They have a veteran and dedicated team of test engineers who ensure valuable service and solutions to the clients enhancing their security.

Their services in security testing include,

  • Security and Risk Assessment
  • Audit Assurance
  • Audit Implementation
  • Cyber security assessment
  • Code review services
  • Penetration testing

14. QA source

QA source is another veteran security testing company. Using the latest technology and tools they ensure the best security testing for their clients.

Their services in security testing include,

  • App Level Testing Services
  • Penetration Testing Services
  • DoS and DDoS Vulnerabilities Testing
  • Security Code Review

15. PacketLabs

PacketLabs is another expert in the security testing field. It focuses on ethical hacking.

Their penetration testing services include

  • Penetration testing
  • Object-based penetration testing
  • Application security testing
  • Cybersecurity maturity assessment
  • Compromise Assessment
  • Purple teaming


 Security testing ensures and prevents possible attacks on your system to an extent.

These security testing companies have years of experience and they can easily test your software for possible vulnerabilities in no time.

Difference between regression testing and retesting

Regression testing Re testing
Done whenever there is a change in code A confirmation technique used once the defect is fixed
To  assure that new changes hasn’t caused new issues To find out whether the issue has been rectified and functionality is restored
Can be done parallel with retesting Should be performed before regression testing
Passed test cases are used Failed test cases are put to use
Defect verification is not apart Defect verification is a part
Can be used to check unexpected results Confirms that the original fault has been corrected
Automation is the key Can’t be automated

difference between regression testing and re testing

Difference Between White box and Black box Testing

Black Box testing: it’s kind of testing where the tester doesn’t know the architecture of the software he is testing. These tests can either be functional or non-functional. It’s high-level testing that’s meant to test the behavior of the software.
White box testing: White box testing is used to test the internal structure of the system. In this type of testing, usually code statements, branches conditions, etc. are covered. White box testing is considered a low-level testing often called a glass box, transparent box or code base testing.
difference between white box and black box testing

Difference between use case and test case

Use case Test case
Set of variables, conditions or steps used to define the interaction between a role and a system to attain certain objectives. Conditions or variables used to define the functionality and behavior of a software
Prepared by business analyst Prepared by test engineers
Different case can be combined One at a time
Use case is something that has to be designed Testcase is something that has to be executed
Describes the flow of events of  the software A document that contains events, action and expected result of the software
Provided to developers Provided to testers
Managed by diagrams Managed by function tests
Requires proper document and research Requires test scripts are required

Difference between use case and test case

11 Reasons Why Transition from Manual Testing to Automation is Beneficial


11 Differences Between iOS and Android App Testing [Infographic]

We have come across numerous apps in our life. But often we face disappointment owing to the bad UX (User Experience) apps have to offer. often we delete the app and curse the makers for providing a subpar product that wasted our data balance.

app testing

Have you ever thought why do they fail? The answer is simple.

They have not tested their app enough. Testing assures guarantee for a product before it’s been showcased in the market.

Even though the purpose of a single Android and IOS apps is similar their testing process is different.

Android apps are open source and there are the vast amounts of customization and flexibility options to avail while testing. On the other hand, Apple IOS apps do not enjoy these options much since it’s solely owned by Apple. However, Security is impeccable when it comes to IOS apps.

There are more differences that set apart testing Android and IOS apps. Their major differences have been represented in the form of an infographic below. Go through it and find out.

11 difference between IOS and Android mobile appTesting