TestCafe vs Selenium : Which is better?

In the realm of web testing frameworks, TestCafe and Selenium stand out for their unique approaches to automation testing. TestCafe, a Node.js tool, offers a straightforward setup and testing process without requiring WebDriver.

Its appeal lies in its ability to run tests on any browser that supports HTML5, including headless browsers, directly without plugins or additional tools.

On the other hand, Selenium, a veteran in the field, is renowned for its extensive browser support and compatibility with multiple programming languages, making it a staple in diverse testing scenarios.

This comparison delves into their technical nuances, assessing their capabilities, ease of use, and flexibility to determine which framework better suits specific testing needs.

Firstly, we’ll understand the role of both automation tools and later see a quick comparison between them.

All About TestCafe

Developed by DevExpress, TestCafe offers a robust and comprehensive solution for automating web testing without relying on WebDriver or any other external plugins.

It provides a user-friendly and flexible API that simplifies the process of writing and maintaining test scripts. Some of its key features include:

  1. Cross-browser Testing: TestCafe allows you to test web applications across multiple browsers simultaneously, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge, without any browser plugins.
  2. Easy Setup: With TestCafe, there’s no need for WebDriver setup or additional browser drivers. You can get started with testing right away by simply installing TestCafe via npm.
  3. Automatic Waiting: TestCafe automatically waits for page elements to appear, eliminating the need for explicit waits or sleep statements in your test scripts. This makes tests more robust and reliable.
  4. Built-in Test Runner: TestCafe comes with a built-in test runner that provides real-time feedback during test execution, including detailed logs and screenshots for failed tests.
  5. Support for Modern Web Technologies: TestCafe supports the testing of web applications built with modern technologies such as React, Angular, Vue.js, and more, out of the box.


Read About:Learn How to Use Testcafe For Creating Testcases Just Like That

Installation of TestCafe

Installing TestCafe is straightforward, thanks to its Node.js foundation. Before you begin, ensure you have Node.js (including npm) installed on your system.

If you haven’t installed Node.js yet, download and install it from the official Node.js website.

Here are the steps to install TestCafe:

Step 1: Open a Terminal or Command Prompt

Open your terminal (on macOS or Linux) or command prompt/powershell (on Windows).

Step 2: Install TestCafe Using npm

Run the following command to install TestCafe globally on your machine. Installing it globally allows you to run TestCafe from any directory in your terminal or command prompt.

npm install -g testcafe

Step 3: Verify Installation

To verify that TestCafe has been installed correctly, you can run the following command to check its version:

testcafe -v

If the installation was successful, you will see the version number of TestCafe output to your terminal or command prompt.

Step 4: Run Your First Test

With TestCafe installed, you can now run tests. Here’s a quick command to run an example test on Google Chrome. This command tells TestCafe to use Google Chrome to open a website and check if the title contains a specific text.

testcafe chrome test_file.js

Replace test_file.js with the path to your test file.


  • If you encounter any permissions issues during installation, you might need to prepend sudo to the install command (for macOS/Linux) or run your command prompt or PowerShell as an administrator (for Windows).
  • TestCafe allows you to run tests in most modern browsers installed on your local machine or on remote devices without requiring WebDriver or any other testing software.

That’s it! You’ve successfully installed TestCafe and are ready to start automating your web testing.

How To Run Tests In TestCafe

Running tests with TestCafe is straightforward and does not require WebDriver or any other testing software. Here’s how you can run tests in TestCafe:

1. Write Your Test

Before running tests, you need to have a test file. TestCafe tests are written in JavaScript or TypeScript. Here’s a simple example of a TestCafe test script (test1.js) that navigates to Google and checks the title:

import { Selector } from 'testcafe';

fixture `Getting Started`
.page `https://www.google.com`;

test(‘My first test’, async t => {
await t

2. Run the Test

Open your terminal (or Command Prompt/PowerShell on Windows) and navigate to the directory containing your test file.

To run the test in a specific browser, use the following command:

testcafe chrome test1.js

Replace chrome with the name of any browser you have installed (e.g., firefox, safari, edge). You can also run tests in multiple browsers by separating the browser names with commas:

testcafe chrome,firefox test1.js

3. Running Tests on Remote Devices

TestCafe allows you to run tests on remote devices. To do this, use the remote keyword:

testcafe remote test1.js

TestCafe will provide a URL that you need to open in the browser on your remote device. The test will start running as soon as you open the link.

4. Running Tests in Headless Mode

For browsers that support headless mode (like Chrome and Firefox), you can run tests without the UI:

testcafe chrome:headless test1.js

5. Additional Options

TestCafe provides various command-line options to customize test runs, such as specifying a file or directory, running tests in parallel, or specifying a custom reporter. Use the --help option to see all available commands:

testcafe --help

Example: Running Tests in Parallel

To run tests in parallel in three instances of Chrome, use:

testcafe -c 3 chrome test1.js

All About Selenium

Selenium provides a suite of tools and libraries for automating web browsers across various platforms. Selenium WebDriver, the core component of Selenium, allows testers to write scripts in multiple programming languages such as Java, Python, C#, and JavaScript. I

ts key features include:

  1. Cross-browser and Cross-platform Testing: Like TestCafe, Selenium supports cross-browser testing across different web browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.
  2. Large Community Support: Selenium has a large and active community of developers and testers who contribute to its development, provide support, and share best practices.
  3. Flexibility: Selenium offers flexibility in terms of programming language and framework choice. You can write test scripts using your preferred programming language and integrate Selenium with popular testing frameworks such as JUnit, TestNG, and NUnit.
  4. Integration with Third-party Tools: Selenium can be easily integrated with various third-party tools and services such as Sauce Labs, BrowserStack, and Docker for cloud-based testing, parallel testing, and containerized testing.
  5. Support for Mobile Testing: Selenium Grid allows you to perform automated testing of web applications on mobile devices and emulators, making it suitable for mobile testing as well.

How To Install Selenium

Installing Selenium involves setting up the Selenium WebDriver, which allows you to automate browser actions for testing purposes.

The setup process varies depending on the programming language you’re using (e.g., Java, Python, C#, etc.) and the browsers you intend to automate. Below is a general guide to get you started with Selenium in Java and Python, two of the most common languages used with Selenium.

For Java

Install Java Development Kit (JDK):

  • Ensure you have the JDK installed on your system. If not, download and install it from the official Oracle website or use OpenJDK.
  • Set up the JAVA_HOME environment variable to point to your JDK installation.

Install an IDE (Optional):

  • While not required, an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse can make coding and managing your project easier.

Download Selenium WebDriver:

Add Selenium WebDriver to Your Project:

  • If using an IDE, create a new project and add the Selenium JAR files to your project’s build path.
  • For Maven projects, add the Selenium dependency to your pom.xml file:

For Python

Install Python:

  • Ensure Python is installed on your system. If not, download and install it from the official Python website.
  • Make sure to add Python to your system’s PATH during installation.

Install Selenium WebDriver:

  • Open your terminal (Command Prompt or PowerShell on Windows, Terminal on macOS and Linux).
  • Run the following command to install Selenium using pip, Python’s package installer:
pip install selenium

Browser Drivers

Regardless of the language, you will need to download browser-specific drivers to communicate with your chosen browser (e.g., ChromeDriver for Google Chrome, geckodriver for Firefox). Here’s how to set them up:

Download Browser Drivers:

Set Up the Driver:

  • Extract the downloaded driver to a known location on your system.
  • Add the driver’s location to your system’s PATH environment variable.

Verify Installation

To verify that Selenium is installed correctly, you can write a simple script that opens a web browser:

For Java

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
public class SeleniumTest {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.setProperty(“webdriver.chrome.driver”, “PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER”);
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

For Python

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=‘PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER’)

Replace PATH_TO_CHROMEDRIVER with the actual path to your ChromeDriver.

This guide should help you get started with Selenium. Remember, the exact steps may vary based on your development environment and the browsers you want to automate.

Also Read : Why is TestNG Awesome? Advantages of Integrating it with Selenium

Comparison Between TestCafe And Selenium

Feature TestCafe Selenium
Language Support JavaScript, TypeScript Java, C#, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, Kotlin, PHP
Browser Support Runs on any browser that supports HTML5. Includes support for headless browsers and mobile browsers via device emulators. Wide range of browsers including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, and Edge. Requires additional drivers for each browser.
WebDriver Requirement Does not require WebDriver or any external dependencies. Requires WebDriver to interact with web browsers.
Installation and Setup Simple setup with no dependencies other than Node.js. Easily installed via npm. More complex setup due to the need for installing WebDriver for each browser.
Test Execution Executes tests directly in the browser using a server. Can run tests on remote devices. Communicates with browsers through the WebDriver protocol.
Parallel Test Execution Built-in support for running tests concurrently across multiple browsers or devices. Supports parallel test execution with additional tools like Selenium Grid or third-party frameworks.
Cross-Browser Testing Simplified cross-browser testing without additional configurations. Requires configuration and setup for each WebDriver to enable cross-browser testing.
Integration with CI/CD Easy integration with popular CI/CD tools like Jenkins, TeamCity, Travis CI, and GitLab CI. Broad support for integration with various CI/CD systems.
Mobile Testing Supports mobile testing through device emulation in browsers. Supports real mobile devices and emulators through Appium integration.
Record and Replay Provides a feature to record actions in the browser and generate test code (with TestCafe Studio). Third-party tools and plugins are required for record and replay capabilities.
Community and Support Active community with support available through forums and chat. Commercial support is available through DevExpress for TestCafe Studio. Very large and active community with extensive resources, forums, and documentation.
Use Case Ideal for teams looking for a quick setup and easy JavaScript/TypeScript integration. Best suited for projects that require extensive language support and integration with various browser drivers and mobile testing through Appium.

Conclusion: Which one is Better? Based On Our Experience.

Both TestCafe and Selenium offer powerful capabilities for web testing, but the choice between them depends on specific project requirements, such as the preferred programming language, ease of setup, browser support, and testing environment complexity.

TestCafe might be more appealing for projects that prioritize ease of use and quick setup, while Selenium provides greater flexibility and language support, making it suitable for more complex automation tasks that may involve a wider range of browsers and integration with mobile testing frameworks like Appium.

11 Awesome Selenium Alternatives For Testers

Selenium is a suite of open-source tools mainly used to test web applications. It works as an API for browser automation. Selenium testing is clearly the most prevalent approach for QA testing, giving the capacity to make custom test automation situations that outfit an assortment of browsers and languages. Selenium is indeed good; is there any selenium competitors or selenium-like tools in the market?

Why Do People Use Selenium Web Testing Framework?

The Selenium Web Testing Framework is becoming increasingly popular as a choice among testers for a number of good reasons.

The Selenium Web Testing Framework is so popular among testers because it’s very flexible, compatible across different browsers, supports multiple programming languages, and, most of all, is an open-source tool.

It allows testers to write their scripts in languages like Java, Python, and C#, which makes integrating Selenium with other tools a breeze.

With Selenium, one can test web applications across different browsers and platforms, ensuring the test coverage is comprehensive.

The fact that there’s strong community support for this framework and regular updates are released contributes even more to its popularity.

For all of these reasons and more, the Selenium Web Testing Framework remains the preferred choice as a leading tool for automatic website testing in a variety of different environments.

Pros and Cons of Selenium Test Automation

Pros Cons
Free and Open Source: No licensing fees, accessible to everyone. Requires development skills: Scripting knowledge needed for test creation.
Cross-browser and platform compatibility: Tests can run on different browsers and operating systems. Maintenance intensive: Scripts need updating as applications evolve.
Flexible and customizable: Adapts to specific testing needs with various frameworks and libraries. Steep learning curve: Initial setup and framework understanding require time and effort.
Extensive community and resources: Abundant documentation, tutorials, and support available online. Limited support for non-web applications: Not suitable for desktop or mobile app testing.
Promotes faster regression testing: Automates repetitive tasks, freeing up time for exploratory testing. Can be fragile: Test scripts might break with UI changes, requiring adjustments.
Improves test coverage: Enables running more tests than manual testing allows. Not a silver bullet: Doesn’t replace manual testing entirely, best used in combination.
Integrates with CI/CD pipelines: Automates testing as part of the development process. Can be slow to develop tests: Scripting can be time-consuming compared to record-and-playback tools.

What Makes People Search for Alternatives to Selenium?

  • Complex Setup and Configuration: Selenium can require a significant amount of setup and configuration, especially for beginners or those unfamiliar with programming concepts.
  • Limited Support for Non-Web Applications: Selenium is primarily designed for web applications, and users working with desktop or mobile applications might seek more suitable tools.
  • Requires Strong Programming Skills: Writing tests in Selenium necessitates a good grasp of programming, which can be a barrier for non-technical testers or those looking for a simpler, no-code solution.
  • No Built-In Test Management and Reporting: Selenium lacks built-in features for test management and reporting, requiring integration with third-party tools, which can complicate the testing process.
  • Browser Compatibility Issues: While Selenium supports multiple browsers, maintaining cross-browser compatibility can be challenging due to the frequent updates of web browsers.
  • Performance and Scalability Issues: Some users may encounter performance bottlenecks with Selenium, especially when dealing with large test suites or requiring high concurrency in test execution.
  • Limited Support for Visual Testing: Selenium does not natively support visual testing (UI testing that involves comparing screenshots of web pages), which is crucial for ensuring UI consistency across different devices and screen sizes.
  • Community Support Variability: Although Selenium has a large community, the quality and timeliness of support can vary, leading users to seek tools with more reliable or official support channels.
  • Looking for More Comprehensive Solutions: Users may seek alternatives that offer a more integrated approach, including features like test creation, management, execution, and reporting in a single platform.
  • Interest in Latest Technologies: With the rapid advancement in AI and machine learning, testers are exploring new tools that incorporate these technologies for smarter, more efficient testing processes.

Applications have turned out to be progressively intricate in recent years, particularly with the utilization of prominent JavaScript structures, for example, Angular.js, React.js, Vue.js, and Ember.js for developing web applications; Selenium has assumed it to be challenging to adjust to these advances.

But there is no need to panic as there are great alternatives to Selenium available in the market. Here is our list of the

11 Best Alternatives to Selenium for the Year 2024.

#1. Robot Framework

Features Of Robot Framework

  • Robot Framework is an open-source automation framework without licensing costs, supported by the Robot Framework Foundation.
  • It is designed to be open and extensible, allowing for integration with virtually any tool for powerful automation solutions.
  • Supports libraries implemented with Python, Java, or many other programming languages to extend its capabilities.
  • Operates across different platforms and environments, featuring an easy syntax with human-readable keywords for test cases.
  • It boasts a rich ecosystem of libraries and tools developed as separate projects, surrounded by a vibrant community offering support and contributions.
  • Suitable for both test automation and robotic process automation (RPA), offering comprehensive documentation for users at all levels.
  • Continuously developed with regular additions of new features and improvements.
  • Integration-friendly, seamlessly working with CI/CD tools like Jenkins and version control systems like Git.
  • Offers versatile testing capabilities, including acceptance testing, end-to-end testing, API testing, and more.
  • It comes with various built-in tools and libraries for immediate use in testing activities.
  • Allows for the creation of custom libraries to extend functionality further and adapt to specific testing needs.
  • Generates detailed reports and logs for in-depth analysis of test runs and features easy installation via package managers.
  • Enables real browser testing through libraries like SeleniumLibrary, and supports mobile application testing with libraries such as AppiumLibrary.
  • Capable of testing web services and APIs with dedicated libraries and allows for desktop application testing, showcasing its wide-ranging automation capabilities.

Cons Of Robot Framework

  • Performance may decrease with large test suites.
  • Non-developers might find a steep learning curve.
  • Requires external libraries for advanced testing.
  • UI testing can be less intuitive compared to specialized tools.
  • Debugging capabilities are limited.
  • Extensive documentation can be overwhelming for new users.
  • Integrating with modern DevOps tools may need extra setup.
  • Mobile and desktop testing require additional libraries.
  • Quality and speed of community support can vary.
  • Limited visual testing capabilities without extra libraries or solutions.

Also Read:- TestCafe vs Selenium: Which is better?

#2. Cypress

Cypress is a newly launched test automation framework that contributes another way forward. Cypress is a feature-rich tool that is entirely open source, with the exception of the dashboard application, and it is undeniably more strictly regulated by current development practices and devices than Selenium.


  • Cypress offers real-time reloads, updating tests automatically with script changes.
  • Features “Time Travel” for viewing test states at each step, aiding debugging.
  • Automates waiting for commands and assertions to be completed, reducing flaky tests.
  • Allows control, stubbing, and testing of network traffic for in-depth testing scenarios.
  • Executes tests directly in the browser for consistent results.
  • Captures screenshots of failures and records videos of test runs for detailed analysis.
  • Supports cross-browser testing, including Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and Electron.
  • Provides an intuitive dashboard for detailed insights into test runs and debugging.
  • Handles both unit and end-to-end testing, making it versatile for web application testing.
  • Seamlessly integrates with CI tools for fitting into automated testing pipelines.
  • Supported by a strong community and comprehensive documentation.


  • Cypress has historically had limited browser support, focusing primarily on Chrome, though it has recently expanded to include Firefox and Edge.
  • It does not support testing scenarios that require interacting with multiple browser tabs simultaneously.
  • Cypress does not natively support running tests across multiple browsers in parallel.
  • Cypress tests can only be written in JavaScript, limiting flexibility for teams using other programming languages.
  • Some users report slower performance with very large test suites, affecting test execution time.
  • Testing content inside iFrames can be more complex and challenging with Cypress.
  • It is specifically designed for web application testing and may not be suitable for desktop or mobile applications.
  • New users, especially those not familiar with JavaScript, may experience a learning curve when getting started with Cypress.

#3. Katalon Studio

One more effective alternative to Selenium is Katalon Studio. It integrated the ground-breaking programming of the Selenium system to accommodate a very well-planned GUI, and the outcome is an amazing test automation system.


  • Katalon Studio offers a comprehensive test automation solution for web, mobile, API, and desktop applications.
  • It supports codeless and scripted modes, making it accessible to users of all technical levels.
  • Integrates seamlessly with popular CI/CD tools like Jenkins, TeamCity, and Bamboo for automated testing pipelines.
  • Provides built-in support for behavior-driven development (BDD) with features for writing and managing Gherkin test cases.
  • Offers a centralized platform for managing test cases, test execution results, and project artifacts.
  • Features an intelligent object repository and an object spy tool for efficient object management and identification.
  • Includes a powerful test recording feature that simplifies the process of creating automated tests.
  • Supports data-driven testing, allowing users to execute tests with various data sets easily.
  • Facilitates collaboration among team members with its project sharing and version control capabilities.
  • Katalon Studio integrates with Jira, qTest, and other ALM tools for enhanced project management and tracking.
  • Provides advanced reporting and analytics features for detailed insights into test execution and outcomes.
  • Users can extend the functionality of Katalon Studio with custom plugins from the Katalon Store or by developing their own.



  • Katalon Studio’s extensive feature set can overwhelm beginners, presenting a steep learning curve.
  • The free version has limitations, requiring a paid subscription for full access to advanced features and capabilities.
  • Performance can be slower with large test suites or complex test scenarios, impacting test execution time.
  • Some users report occasional stability issues, especially when working with extensive or complex projects.
  • Integration with certain third-party tools and systems may require additional configuration or workarounds.
  • The codeless automation approach, while accessible, may not offer the same level of flexibility and control as custom scripting for more advanced testing needs.
  • Reports generated in the free version may lack the depth and customization options available in the paid version.
  • While it supports both web and desktop applications, mobile testing capabilities might not be as comprehensive as dedicated mobile testing tools.
  • Custom plugins or extensions may be necessary to meet specific testing requirements, adding complexity to the setup.
  • The community and support resources, though extensive, may not always provide immediate solutions to less common issues or advanced use cases.

#4. Screenster

Screenster gives visual User Interface test automation to web applications. It is the single device that approves the screens which users really see. While recording a UI test, Screenster breaks down the DOM and matches individual UI components to their performance on the screen. Thus, a tester can confirm each on-page component.


  • Offers visual regression testing, automatically detecting UI changes and anomalies.
  • Provides a cloud-based platform, eliminating the need for local setup and maintenance.
  • Enables automated test recording by capturing actions in the browser without writing code.
  • Supports testing across different browsers and devices to ensure consistent UI experiences.
  • Integrates baseline management, allowing easy review and approval of visual changes.
  • Facilitates team collaboration with shared test projects and results.
  • Generates detailed reports highlighting visual differences with screenshots.
  • Allows for easy test maintenance by updating baselines and reusing tests across projects.


  • Visual testing can generate false positives due to minor and inconsequential visual differences.
  • May require manual review of test results to confirm genuine issues versus expected UI changes.
  • Limited to web applications, not suitable for testing non-web-based software or mobile applications natively.
  • Dependence on cloud infrastructure might raise concerns for teams with strict data security or privacy requirements.
  • Could be less flexible for complex test scenarios that go beyond UI comparison.
  • Pricing model may not fit all budgets, especially for small teams or individual developers.
  • Learning curve for users unfamiliar with visual regression testing concepts and best practices.
  • Integration with existing test suites or CI/CD pipelines may require additional setup.

#5. CasperJS

CasperJS is an open-source, quick, lightweight, and simple-to-configure testing utility and navigation scripting embedded in CoffeeScript or JavaScript for PhantomJS and SlimerJS.

The tool has the capability of testing the page status, functional navigation, scrapping information off the website page, and also automatically checking network traffic.


  • Enables automated navigation scripting for web applications, simplifying the process of defining and executing navigation scenarios.
  • Facilitates the creation of automated tests, including functional and regression tests, for web applications.
  • Offers detailed event logging and screenshot capture capabilities to assist in debugging and test verification.
  • Supports headless browser testing through PhantomJS, allowing tests to run without a graphical user interface for faster execution.
  • Provides a straightforward syntax for writing test scripts, making it accessible for developers and testers with JavaScript knowledge.
  • Allows for page scraping and automation tasks, making it useful for web scraping projects in addition to testing.
  • Capable of simulating multiple user interactions with web pages, including clicking links, filling out forms, and capturing the resulting changes.
  • Integrates with other tools and frameworks for continuous integration and testing workflows.


  • As development has been suspended, the tool may not receive updates, bug fixes, or support for newer web technologies and standards.
  • Limited to PhantomJS (also no longer actively maintained) or SlimerJS for browser environments, which may not reflect the latest browser behaviors accurately.
  • Lacks native support for testing across multiple real browsers, limiting its effectiveness in cross-browser testing scenarios.
  • The scripting approach can become cumbersome for very complex applications or tests that require extensive setup and teardown.
  • Users may encounter challenges integrating CasperJS with modern JavaScript frameworks and libraries due to its suspension and the rapid evolution of web technologies.
  • The community support and resources may dwindle over time, making it harder for new users to find help or existing users to solve emerging issues.
  • May not be the best choice for projects that prioritize long-term maintenance and compatibility with future web standards.

#6. Watir

Watir is an open-source and free tool launched under the license of BSD. As the test scripts are written in Ruby, it is simple to adapt, particularly for Ruby designers.

Also, because the Ruby language is very brief, the tests made utilizing the Waitr tool are not at all difficult to create and upgrade. Along these lines, the long-term upkeep of the test suits requires less overhead.

Further, Watir’s web driver is based on the WebDriver system, which can drive the most famous systems out there, making Watir utterly usable with numerous browsers.


  • Open-source Ruby library for automating web browsers, offering a powerful tool for web application testing.
  • Supports multiple browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari, directly through their respective drivers.
  • Enables interaction with web elements in a way that mimics human actions, such as clicking buttons, filling out forms, and navigating through pages.
  • Allows for the execution of tests on real browsers, ensuring that applications work as expected in real-world scenarios.
  • Integrates easily with testing frameworks like RSpec, Cucumber, and Test::Unit, allowing for the development of readable and maintainable test code.
  • Provides support for headless browser testing, enabling tests to run faster and in environments without a graphical interface.
  • Facilitates cross-browser testing, helping ensure that web applications function correctly across different browser types and versions.
  • It features a simple and intuitive API, making it accessible for beginners and experienced testers.


  • Primarily focused on web applications, with limited capabilities for testing non-web or mobile applications.
  • Being a Ruby library, it might not be the preferred choice for teams working primarily in other programming languages.
  • Some users might find the setup and configuration process challenging, especially when integrating with various browsers and driver versions.
  • The performance of tests can be affected by the speed and stability of the web browsers being automated.
  • Requires a good understanding of Ruby for writing more complex test scripts or extending the framework’s capabilities.
  • Like any open-source project, the speed and availability of updates and new features can depend on the community and contributors.

#7. Cucumber

Cucumber removes any barrier between non-technical and technical project personnel.

Fundamentally, that is the crucial element of its mystery sauce. Actually, cucumber can go about as a selenium alternative or perform in pairs with selenium.


  • Supports Behavior-Driven development (BDD), allowing the creation of test cases in plain English, making them understandable to non-technical stakeholders.
  • Enables writing of specifications using Gherkin language, which is highly readable and serves as living documentation for the project.
  • Integrates with various programming languages including Ruby, Java, and JavaScript, making it versatile across different development environments.
  • Facilitates collaboration between developers, QA teams, and business analysts by using language that is easy to understand for all parties involved.
  • Offers support for various testing frameworks such as RSpec, Test::Unit, and JUnit, allowing for flexible test execution.
  • Provides detailed reports on test execution, making it easier to identify and address failures.
  • Supports scenario outlines and examples, enabling parameterized testing for covering multiple scenarios with a single test case.
  • Can be integrated into CI/CD pipelines, enhancing continuous testing practices.


  • The abstraction layer introduced by Gherkin can sometimes lead to misunderstandings if not accurately expressed, affecting test accuracy.
  • Writing and maintaining step definitions requires additional effort, potentially slowing the development process.
  • The initial setup and learning curve can be steep for teams unfamiliar with BDD or Gherkin syntax.
  • Overusing Cucumber for simple unit tests that don’t benefit from BDD might lead to unnecessary complexity.
  • Requires diligent management of feature files and step definitions to avoid duplication and keep tests maintainable.
  • The performance of test suites can be slower compared to direct unit testing, especially for large projects.
  • Balancing the granularity of scenarios to be neither too broad nor too detailed can be challenging and time-consuming.
  • Dependency on the active involvement of business stakeholders to reap the full benefits of BDD may not always be feasible.

#8. Ghost Inspector

Ghost Inspector is a browser-based framework that works through a Chrome plugin. This tool is a Selenium IDE alternative that appears to get record/playback best in Ghost Inspector.


  • Offers easy creation of automated browser tests without the need for coding, using a Chrome extension for recording actions.
  • Allows tests to run in the cloud, eliminating the need for local test execution environments and infrastructure.
  • Provides immediate visual feedback by comparing screenshots of test runs, helping to catch UI changes or errors quickly.
  • Integrates with popular CI/CD tools and services like Jenkins, CircleCI, and GitHub for seamless automation workflows.
  • Supports the scheduling of tests to run automatically at specified intervals, ensuring regular monitoring of web applications.
  • Includes detailed reports and notifications for test outcomes via email, Slack, and other channels, keeping teams informed.
  • Offers a dashboard for managing tests, organizing them into suites, and tracking historical test results and trends.
  • Enables testing on various screen sizes and custom environments to ensure responsiveness and compatibility across devices.
  • Facilitates team collaboration with shared access to tests and results, enhancing communication and efficiency.

Inspector Cons:

  • While powerful for UI testing, it might not be as effective for testing backend processes or non-UI-based interactions.
  • Dependency on the cloud-based platform means limited control over the test execution environment compared to local or self-hosted solutions.
  • May incur additional costs for high usage levels, as pricing is based on test execution frequency and suite sizes.
  • Learning how to effectively use the recording tool and understand the nuances of test creation can take time for new users.
  • Limited programming capabilities mean complex test logic or custom scripting might be difficult to implement compared to more code-intensive testing frameworks.
  • Managing many tests and ensuring they remain up-to-date with application changes can be challenging.
  • While it offers integrations with several CI/CD tools, setup and configuration might require a learning curve for teams new to automation


10. TestCraft

TestCraft is a codeless Selenium test automation framework. It can rapidly integrate and use modules created by the community. Its advanced AI innovation and exceptional visual modeling enable quicker test generation and performance while wiping out the test support overhead. The tool considerably decreases maintenance costs.

Testers can also make completely automated test cases without coding in them. Users discover bugs quicker, deliver all the more often, coordinate with CI/CD, and enhance the general property of their digital products.

Scripts are adapted to change automatically because of the AI mechanism. Also, a tester can make significant changes with just a couple of clicks using this tool.


11. Protractor
It is an open-source automation framework created specifically for the automation of AngularJS web applications.
The protractor is based on JavaScript Selenium WebDriver, so it supports every one of the traits that are accessible with Selenium WebDriver.
With one or two commands, both Selenium WebDriver and the testing framework will be installed pleasantly. Protractor tests the application by communicating with it as a user.

This tool is formally called an E2E,i.e. end-to-end testing structure.

The utilization of JavaScript, one of the most simple-to-use programming languages to adapt, particularly for those who have an inadequate programming background makes this tool a good alternative.

With its ‘Automatic Waiting’ element, the test executes automatically to the following stage without waiting for the test and web page to sync.

Protractor also supports tools like Cucumber, Jasmine, and Mocha to compose test suites as it is a wrapper of WebDriverJS.

It is a library for Node that automates headless Chrome or Chromium through the DevTools Protocol and gives high level API to developers. This enables the developers to perceive a web browser as an object and uses methods such as .goto () or .type (). Puppeteer is a browser- driven framework that was built and maintained by the Chrome DevTools team. Its main features are better management of Chrome, web scraping support, UI testing using screenshot and PDF capturing abilities as well as loading times measured by means of the Chrome Performance Analysis tool.

WebdriverIO is a framework that supports automated testing of modern web and mobile applications, playing the role of end-to-end testing under OpenJS Foundation. Being a NodeJS application, it performs tests in JavaScript/TypeScript. WebdriverIO is often used with WebdriverProtocol providing functions such as cross-browser testing. However, it is distinct from Cypress because of the absence of a commercial version. Important aspects of the product are an increased test suite scalability, reliability and stability testing; a flexible nature provided by built-in plugins as well as community contributions ; support for native mobile applications’ testing easy installation procedures.

Playwright is an open-sourced test automation library built by contributors of Microsoft. It is a Node.js library which automates browsers such as Chromium, Firefox and WebKit using a unified API. Playwright supports programming languages such as Java, Python and NodeJS. However the frameworks developed prefer to be in NodeJS or Javascript/Typescript tools. The major features are ease of setup and configure, the ability to support Chrome , Edge, Safari as well as Firefox in a multi-browser manner; compatibility with multiple programming languages; parallel browser testing capability on different browsers or tabs.

BrowserStack develops and maintains NightwatchJS, a Node.js framework that uses the Webdriver Protocol. This framework allows running different testing types such as End-to-End, component and visual regression tests, accessibility, API unit integration. Importantly, it is easy to extend and personalize the framework using Nightwatch. One of the major highlights is fast installation and setup. In particular, NightwatchJS test scripts are written as legible code and the framework allows for testing in different browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Edge among others.
Importantly, it expands its usability to in-house mobile app testing and hence is useful for every user. Moreover, NightwatchJS implements the page object pattern to assure better structure and test scripts’ maintainability.


We hope you like the list that we have complied.  Go through them and choose which alternative to selenium suits your needs the best

Top 7 Test Automation Companies In India

Test automation is one of the most recommended testing processes during which a special software (different from the software being tested) is used to control the execution of tests as well as the comparison of actual outcomes with expected outcomes. This process executes some of the repetitive but essential testing tasks that are already in place or performs additional testing that is difficult to be performed manually.

Test automation is an effective way to improve the development process of a software product. Capable of running fast and frequently, automated tests are cost-effective and have long maintenance life. When these tests are conducted in a lively environment, it is important that these react quickly to ever-changing software systems and requirements. There is also no restriction on adding the new test cases as these can be added in parallel to the software’s development.

app testing

A number of IT and non-IT companies are already engaged in the delivery of this process. But, with the growing demand, there are a number of other companies that are solely engaged in the delivery of test automation and so are referred to as test automation companies. This article shares with you a list of seven such companies from all these sectors:

Here is the best automation testing companies in India

1. Testbytes

Testbytes is a leading software test automation company in India which provides complete testing service, including a unique approach to testing within projects, app life-cycle management consultancy, test automation, testing mobile apps etc. The enviable track record of providing test solutions and services on time has helped them to be one of the leading testing companies in India.

Testbytes mainly focuses to improve productivity and help clients to accelerate software product development or service delivery. As part of this, the company offers top end business consulting, resourcing services and implementation. Comprised with a passionate team, Testbytes is supported by dedicated center of excellence which uses latest testing tools and cutting edge technologies. Coupled with management focus, this company is a formidable combination to guarantee value to you.

2. QA Wolf

QA Wolf simplifies automating web app testing enabling 80% test coverage within four months. They provide an automated end-to-end test suite and give round-the-clock maintenance of tests. The package also provides the advantage of free unlimited parallel test runs, without any additional costs.

Key Features:

1. Unlimited Parallel Test Runs: QA Wolf allows you to run your test suite as often as necessary with no extra cost for the number of runs.
2. 24-Hour Test Maintenance: They handle your entire test suite making sure that flaky tests are managed to prevent false positives and keep pressuring you of shipping.
3. Human-Verified Bug Reports: QA Wolf also looks at the test failure in great detail to make sure it’s a real bug. Your issue tracker receives detailed bug reports that include the steps necessary to re-produce them.
4. No Vendor Lock-In: The main advantage is that it provides no vendor lock-in. You can export your tests whenever necessary.


  • Rapid and Cost-Effective: Reach high test coverage for your web app within no time with QA Wolf’s best solution.
  • Expert QA Engineers: QA engineers from their team are responsible for the development and support of the automated test suite.
  • Unlimited Parallel Test Runs: You can run tests whenever you please without incurring extra charges.
    CI/CD Integration: Smoothly embed QA Wolf into your CI/CD workflows.
  • No Vendor Lock-In: You are not bound to a particular supplier; you can export your tests at any time.


  • No Native Mobile App Testing: Testing for native mobile apps is not supported by QA Wolf at the moment.

Also Read:- 12 Reasons To Invest in Software Testing!

3) Infosys

An Indian multinational company, Infosys Limited is a global leader in offering business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services in different parts of the world.

The test automation services offered by the company to its clients are not at all casual. These are executed to the client’s utmost satisfaction and help them ensure that the products and services delivered in the market surpass the expected quality standard.

Key Features:

1. Simultaneous Testing: It allows concurrent automated and manual testing, resulting in superior results.
2. Optimized for DevOps: Customized for DevOps, it combines progressive test cases with automated executions.
3. ROI Boost: It provides high efficiency and reduces initial costs with pre-made frameworks, optimized workflows, effective Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).
4. Thorough Validation: Allows comprehensive analysis and testing of all applications resulting in increased reliability.
5. Efficient Workflow: It allows independent testing by testers, programmers and automation experts.

6. Responsive Customer Support: Offers timely and convenient customer support through emails as well as online contact forms.


  • User-Friendly Interface: The GUI interface allows non-technical users to configure and monitor test cases easily.
  • Versatile Compatibility: Compatible with any industry-standard automation services.
  • Speeds Up Work: Employs vigorous SOPs and prefab tools/templates hastens the processes in all stages.


  • Cost Factor for SMEs: For SMEs, it might be rather costly.

4. TCS

TCS stands out as a leading test automation company, offering an Automation-as-a-Service approach, which is a game-changer compared to traditional Software-as-a-Service models. This unique setup accelerates workflow, reducing bottlenecks at all levels. The result? Faster time to market and early detection of bugs and vulnerabilities.
TCS has been a key player in the test automation scene for over 50 years, providing robust services to clients in 50+ countries. They are pioneers in technological advancements, leading in Digital Sciences, Efficient Computing, Sustainable Futures, and more.

Key Features:

1. Technology Adoption: TCS consistently embraces new technologies to empower clients with robust automation testing capabilities.
2. AI and ML Integration: Leveraging advanced AI and ML-based automation processes, TCS enhances testing methods for superior results.
3. Robust AI Engine: Their powerful AI engine generates scripts in any language by interpreting actions and identifying objects.
4. Comprehensive Testing Services: TCS offers a range of services, including bottleneck analysis, code profiling and optimization, on-demand performance testing, and more.


  • AI, ML, and AL Algorithms: TCS employs AI, ML, and Augmented Learning algorithms to enhance product delivery quality.
  • Failure Identification and Self-Healing: Capable of identifying failures and performing self-healing where possible.
  • Diverse Service Portfolio: Offers services in cybersecurity, IoT, consulting, enterprise services, sustainability, and more.


  • Customer Support: Compared to competitors, customer support responsiveness may be less optimal.

4. Accenture

Accenture is a Fortune Global 500 company that deals majorly with global management consulting and professional services. Our unmatched range of services in strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations make us capable of delivering transformational outcomes.

The testing team at Accenture assists the client companies to launch some new technology in this fast-paced world. This is owing to the testing team ability to help companies be sure of the product quality delivered by them as well as offer a seamless customer experience.


1. Specialized Testing: Easily performs special, human-driven testing in a variety of technologies.
2. Quality Control: Using a modern AI-driven and analytics approach, makes testing easier and better.
3. Modern Approach: DevOps and intelligent automation are adopted by Accenture in order to combine development testing with streamlined workflows. This forms a never ending activity where all the operations work in parallel.
4. Services Offered: Accenture offers a variety of services, such as data analytics applications service finance consulting AI marketing security automation etc.
5. End-To-End Transformation: Provides strong solutions to enable rapid alignment with contemporary Agile and DevOps practices in application development.


  • Real-Time Monitoring: Data monitoring and testing in real time, which make it easier to detect and correct results
  • Automated Approach: Takes a strong automatic approach, improving testing speeds.
  • Low-Code Automation: Facilitates the low-code automation for businesses with an approachable visual interface.


  • Not Ideal for DevOps Collaboration: It might not be the right pick for smooth collaboration with your DevOps processes.

5. Cigniti

Headquartered in Hyderabad, India, Cigniti Technologies is the world’s foremost company that has stepped into offering independent software testing services. With its test services offered in quality engineering, advisory & transformation, next generation testing, and core testing, the company also focuses on making use of SMART Tools that can speed up testing as well as help improve the quality of services delivered to clients.

Key Features:

1. No-Script Test Automation: It easily generates high-quality test automation that does not require expertise in scripting.
2. AI Advancements: It leverages AI to provide an adaptable framework, facilitating the ongoing change of automation artifacts in test applications.
3. Methodology: Cigniti regularly innovates and uses their own methods to automate manual tests, which can be compatible with your current agile and DevOps environment.
4. Testing Capabilities: Besides automation testing, the company offers other services such as Agile testings Test Data management ERP mappings Functional Performance and more.


  • AI Optimization: Uses a range of alternative AI algorithms, ensuring efficient test suite optimization.
  • Additional Services: Provides additional services such as DevOps Transformation, Security Assurance etc.
  • Custom Automation Strategy: It helps create an intricately planned automation plan matching your enterprise’s goals.


  • Limited Autonomous Management: Lacks autonomy management capacity.

Also Read:- 15 Points To Consider While Hiring a Software Testing Company

7. QualityLogic

QualityLogic is an exceptional automation testing service provider that ensures cost optimization, and tests customized to your specific needs. It is a perfect fit for cost-effective testing as it provides personalized guidance on automation strategies and ROI projections.
As a top-tier automation testing firm, QualityLogic can automatically adapt to your current software stack and align with your SDLC and processes. However, it is leading in digital accessibility and avant-garde energy testing services providing flexible arrangements for customization to your development environments.

Key Features:
1. On-Demand Assistance: QualityLogic has an experienced team of developers, testers and specialists using up-to-date technology to solve your problems.
2. Customized Approach: Assessing the scope of your technology, needs and challenges; their team creates an intelligent solution just for you.
3. Efficiency: Enables the development of extremely productive processes, ensuring that costly mistakes are identified at an early stage. It helps in lowering time to market and improving performance with bottleneck optimization.
4. Testing Services: Provides a wide range of testing services, including software testing, intelligent energy solutions, etc


  • Dedicated Support Team: It provides a separate team of support and maintenance for new feature releases.
  • Comprehensive Testing Services: Offers various test services covering web automation testing, mobile app testing and others.
  • Responsive Customer Support: It provides prompt customer care services via email and other modes of communication.


  • Not Ideal for Large Enterprise Projects: Not necessarily suitable for large scale enterprise level projects.

Test automation is not a task that would take a lot of time and energy. It just needs improved concentration and focus of the individual conducting it. If you are a certified professional in test automation, you can look for a career opportunity in any of the above-mentioned firms.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How to select the best automation testing companies?

The choice of leading automation testing companies is usually dependent on factors that include industry reputation, client ratings, proficiency in automation technology and capabilities as well their ability to provide quality solutions.

2. Which various software development methodologies these companies work upon?

Many leading automation testing companies are also able to accommodate different approaches like Agile, DevOps, as well as traditional Waterfall methods. They tailor their testing approaches based on the unique requirements and operational dynamics of their customers.

3. Apart from automation testing, what kinds of test services do these companies provide?

Other than automation testing, leading companies offer broad range testing services including performance testing, security testing, mobile app testing, usability testing and specialized work in digital accessibility intelligent test.

4. Are these companies able to customize their automation solutions so that they would suit the needs of individual industries?

Yes, leading automation testing companies usually serve their clients based on individual needs of industry. They study the peculiarities and needs of various industries and customize their automation platforms aimed at quality testing in different business spheres like finances, medicine, online shops etc.

Top 50 Must Read Jmeter Interview Questions

To be able to answer the questions about Jmeter Interview Questions you must go through the most frequently asked interview questions about the tool. Let’s have a look.
Q 1: What is JMeter?
Ans: JMeter is a Java-based tool used for Performance and Load Testing. It simulates virtual users and sends multiple requests to the server. It then collects the response and other details to assess the performance of the system under different conditions.
Q 2: Explain Samplers and Thread Groups in JMeter?
Ans: Sampler generates sample results sets with different attributes like time, data size, etc. These allow JMeter to send requests to the server. Some of the most frequently used samplers are HTTP requests, JDBC requests, etc.
Thread Groups are user sets that contain the details of the number of users to be loaded into the system and the time gap between them. It is the basic step for any load testing activity.
Q 3: What is a pre-processor element? Name some.
Ans: A pre-processor is something that is executed before the sampler executes. It can be used to set the values for the sample request.
Some of the pre-processor elements are:

  • HTTP URL re-writing modifier
  • BeanShellPreProcessor
  • HTML link parser

Q 4: What is the order in which the test elements are executed?
Ans: The sequence is:

  • Configuration elements
  • Pre-processors
  • Timers
  • Samplers
  • Post-processors
  • Assertions
  • Listeners

Q 5: What is a regular expression? What is the difference between “contain” and “matches” in the regular expression?
Ans: A regular expression is a pattern used to search and match a particular text.
In a regular expression, “contain” means the search text can be some part of the matched expression. Like “press” in “expression”. “Matches” on the other hand need to match the complete expression. “exp.n” for “expression”.
Q 6: What are the configuration elements?
Ans: A configuration element works in parallel with Samplers. They are used to set the default values for variables.
Q 7: What is a timer in JMeter? Mention different types of timers?
Ans: JMeter is designed to send requests to the server continuously without a break. If we need a pause in between successive requests we can make use of the timer. There are many timers available and some of the most common ones are:

  • Constant Timer
  • Gaussian Random Timer
  • Uniform Random Timer
  • Synchronizing Timer

Q 8: What is an assertion? Name some assertions in JMeter.
Ans: Assertions are used to help validate and verify the server response with the expected results.
Some of the common Assertions are:

  • Response Assertion
  • Duration Assertion
  • Size Assertion
  • XML Assertion
  • HTML Assertion

Q 9: Can you do spike testing using JMeter?
Ans: With help of a synchronization timer we can achieve a spike effect in JMeter. A synchronizing timer will block all requests till a particular number of threads are blocked and then release them all together, creating a huge load or spike.

Tensed regarding your Automation Tester Interview?: Read This blog

Q 10: What is distributed load testing?
Ans: The load testing in which loads are simulated from numerous systems to create a huge load is called distributed load testing. In JMeter, we can use the master-slave configuration to achieve distributed load testing.
Q 11: What are the benefits of JMeter?
Ans: The benefits of JMeter are:

  • It can be used for the performance testing of both static and dynamic resources
  • It can handle the maximum number of concurrent users
  • It provides very detailed graphical results and analysis.

Q 12: What are the protocols supported by JMeter?
Ans: The protocols supported by JMeter are:

  • Web: HTTP, HTTPS
  • Web Services: SOAP /XML RPC
  • Database via JDBC
  • Directory: LDAP
  • Messaging via JMS
  • Service: POP3, IMAP, SMTP
  • FTP Service

Mobile app test cost calculator
Q 13: What is the difference between Test Fragment and Thread Group?
Ans: Test Fragments are similar to Thread Groups with the difference that they are implemented only when they are referenced by a Module controller or an Include controller.
Q 14: What are Configuration Elements?
Ans: Configuration Elements are used to create variables and default values for the Samplers. They can also be used to alter the requests made by the Samplers. It is executed at the start of the scope and can be accessed only within that branch.
Q 15: How will use ensure the reusability of your JMeter scripts?
Ans:  Some things that help improve the reusability are:

  • Use of config elements like “CSV Data Set Config”, “User-Defined Variables”
  • Modularizing the tasks and calling them via Module Controller
  • Writing BeanShell functions.

Q 16:Name some listeners in JMeter?
Ans: Some listeners are:

  • BeanShell Listener
  • Monitor Results
  • Aggregate Report
  • Summary Report
  • View Results Tree
  • Spline Visualiser

Q 17: Name the different types of controllers?
Ans: There are mainly 2 types of controllers in JMeter:

  • Samplers Controllers – They are used to send specific requests to the server and simulate the user request.
  • Logical Controllers – Logical Controllers control the flow or order of processing of the Samplers. It can be used to change the sequence of requests coming from the child element.

Q 18: What is a workbench?
Ans: Workbench is like a storage area for components that can be added to the test plan as per the need. They are not saved with the test plan but get saved as Test Fragments separately.
Q 19: What is co-relation in JMeter?
Ans: Co-relation is the process of extracting a value from the response received, to use in upcoming requests. This is especially useful for session-id, cookies, etc.
Q 20: Can JMeter be used for load testing mobile applications?
Ans: Yes, JMeter can be used for sending HTTP or HTTPS to the server from your mobile application provided both the mobile and the server are on the same network.
Q 21: What is a root CA certificate?
Ans: In the case of HTTPS requests, when the browser hits the server, authentication is required. JMeter can generate this certificate temporarily to intercept the traffic and record the actions. To perform the action on mobiles, the certificate needs to be installed on your mobile as well. These are called the root CA certificates.
Q 22: What is the default screen in JMeter?
Ans: The default screen in JMeter opens the Test Plan and Workbench tabs.
Q 23: What is a Test Plan and what the important elements in the Test Plan?
Ans: A test plan contains the details of the things to test and how the tests are carried out. A test plan in JMeter contains the following elements:

  • Pre-processor Elements
  • Post-processor Elements
  • Thread Groups
  • Controllers
  • Listeners
  • Timers
  • Assertions
  • Configuration Elements

Q 24: Is it possible to reduce resource utilization in JMeter?
Ans: Some of the popular ways to minimize resource utilization while running JMeter are:

  • Use a non-GUI mode for running the tests
  • Use only the minimal number of listeners
  • Avoid using the “View Result Tree” listener as it consumes a lot of space
  • Use parameterization where ever possible
  • Avoid the functional mode
  • For the output select CSV instead of XML
  • Disable unwanted graphs, they consume a lot of space

Q 25: What is Beanshell scripting?
Ans: BeanShell is a lightweight java scripting that can help you with complex and application-specific tasks.
Q 26: What is the difference between Gaussian and Poisson Timers?
Ans: Both the timers use mathematical formulas to create delays and offsets. The difference between the two is that in the Gaussian Timer the deviation value is calculated whereas in Poisson the lambda value is calculated.
Q 27: How can you configure the master-slave configuration?
Ans: The master-slave configuration is used for distributed load testing.
To configure we can:

  • Edit the JMeter.properties file on the master machine and add the IP addresses of the slave machines in the remote_host field.
  • Save the properties file and relaunch JMeter for the changes to be effective
  • From the RUN menu, select Remote Start and choose the above-added IP address of the slave machine. Choose Remote Start all to invoke all the slave machines.

Q 28: Which is the XML parser present in JMeter?
Ans: Apache’s Xerces XML parser
Q 29: What is the default protocol used for testing a web service using SSL encryption?
Ans: TLS protocol is used for testing web services using SSL encryption.
Q 30: What is the default LDAP port over SSL?
Ans: 625
Q 31: What is the maximum number of users that can be simulated by JMeter?
Ans: JMeter can simulate an unlimited number of users. The number of users is equal to the number of threads in a test plan. The only limitation to the number of threads is the hardware resources of the test machine. For getting a higher number of users we may need to scale up the hardware.

Are you a tester? Then you must go through these interview questions

Q 32:Can JMeter be used for API testing?
Ans: Yes, it can be used for SOAP and REST web services testing. Performance testing of RESTful API can also be done with JMeter.
Q 33: What is a JTL file in JMeter?
Ans: JTL stands for JMeter Test Logs. It contains the results of the tests. The file extension of the JTL file can be selected before the execution. If the same file is selected for multiple runs, each subsequent result gets appended to the end of the same file.
Q 34: What is the latest version of JMeter?
Ans: The latest version is JMeter 5.4.1 and it was released in January 2021.
Q 35:What is Throughput in JMeter?
Ans: Throughput is the number of requests served or successfully processed per unit of time.
Throughput = (No. of requests)/(total time)
Q 36:How can you calculate the number of concurrent users?
Ans: Concurrent users mean the number of users performing the same operation at the same time in the system. The number of users in the system can be found out using the number of threads. But a vague calculation of the number of concurrent users – if there are
100 unique visitors, with each visitor spending 10 mins in the system. Then we can say that the number of concurrent users is 100/10 = 10 users.
Q 37: What is the load time in JMeter?
Ans: In JMeter, load time refers to the total time before sending a request to after receiving a response. For multiple threads, the load time is calculated at the thread level and is the total time between the thread request and the response received.
Load Time = Time after a response is received – Time before a request is sent.
Q 38: What are Monitor Tests?
Ans: Monitor Tests are generally used for stress testing. They provide additional information about server performance. It also helps to monitor multiple servers from the console.
Q 39:Can we use Selenium scripts in JMeter?
Ans: Yes we can. One way is by using Junit libraries to create Selenium scripts, save them as Jars and copy them to the JMeter directory. Another way is to add the web driver sampler plugin to the JMeter ext folder.
Q 40: Explain how JMeter works?
Ans: JMeter simulates multiple concurrent users using threads and sends requests to the server, create a load. It then measures the time and performance of the server and displays it in the form of tables and graphs.
Q 41: What is the ramp-up period in JMeter?
Ans: While running load tests, all the users are not loaded into the system together. The number of users is slowly and progressively increased to better understand the system bottlenecks and performance. The ramp-up period is thus the time taken for all the users to get into the system.
Q 42: What is the Rendezvous Point?
Ans: The Rendezvous Point is the term used with stress testing. It is the point at which all the delayed requests are released to hit the server and create a spike.
Q 43: What are Post-Processors?
Ans: Post-Processors are the elements of the test plan that are executed after the sampler request execution. Generally, they are used for extracting some values from the sampler response.
Q 44: What is the 90% line in JMeter?
Ans: 90% line is one of the metrics of the Aggregate Report Listener. It means 90% of the responses were within this limit. It is similar to the percentile value and can also be called the 90th percentile of the response time.
jmeter interview questions
Q 45: What are the common techniques of Performance Testing?
Ans: The most common performance testing techniques are:

  • Spike Testing
  • Load Testing
  • Volume Testing
  • Endurance Testing
  • Stress Testing

Q 46: How can you run JMeter in GUI mode?
Ans: The following command is used to run JMeter in GUI mode:
:jmeter -n -ttest.jmx -l test.jtl
Q 47: How can you analyze the JMeter results?
Ans: The JMeter results are stored in the .jtl file. It is possible to add different graphs like the response time graph, aggregate report, etc. We can also analyze the response time and the TPS (transactions per second). In some cases, we may also want to add some plugins to get additional graphs.
Q 48:Is it possible to configure email notifications in JMeter?
Ans: Yes, we can use the SMTP sampler to trigger emails at the start and end of the JMeter tests.
Q 49: What are the different types of recording in JMeter?
Ans: JMeter allows manual and automation recording. For automation recording, we can use the workbench to record the script. For manual recording, we can make use of fiddler or network log (F12)
Q 50: How can you forcefully stop a test in the middle of the execution?
Ans: For Windows machines, we can double-click on the stoptest.bat and shutdown.bat to forcefully stop the test. In the case of Mac, stoptest.sh and shutdown.sh files need to be double-clicked.
Hope you have gone through all of the Jmeter interview questions we have listed here. We wish you all the best!

Jmeter Tutorial: Learn about the tool in a jiffy!

Jmeter Tutorial blog by us will help you in learning about the famous tool and what’s it is used for.  Usually, Apache JMeter is used for performance testing. Performance testing is one of the important testings to be performed on AUT. It will let you know the load which your application can handle and what happens if that load exceeds prescribed limits.
Through, meter tutorial let us know more about JMeter and see how it can be used for performance testing. 

About JMeter – Jmeter tutorial introduction
JMeter is an open-source software which is designed by Apache Foundation. It is used to apply load to AUT to know its performance. With the help of JMeter, you will be able to apply a heavy load to the application with concurrent or multiple traffic to emulate real-time user behavior.
For applications such as Amazon who release flash day sales, it is very important to do performance testing. On a single day and in a time interval of 5 mins many customers hit the site and we must make sure that the application behaves expectedly without any flaws. One more application where performance testing is very important is the railway ticket booking website where a large chunk of people hit the server at the same time. In these cases, it becomes very necessary to test out the website under heavy load. 
JMeter is usually used for testing of web or FTP application. With JMeter, you will able to identify how many concurrent users a server can handle. Thinking of hitting Amazon with 1000 concurrent users. For achieving the scenario, you cannot purchase 1000 machines to achieve the behavior. JMeter allows you to hit the Amazons server with 1000 requests concurrently. JMeter simulated real-time user’s behavior intelligently. JMeter sends requests to the target server and then retrieves the statistical information of the server. With this information, it generates test reports in different formats. 
Some benefits which you gain via JMeter is a User-friendly GUI, Graphical Test Results, easy installation, and platform independence. It has an amazing record and playback feature which makes it very easy to learn even for the novice. Also, its script test can be integrated with Selenium tests and beach shells for more robust automated testing. Through the Jmeter tutorial, we are trying to et up a tutorial for people to learn about this magnificent tool.

Step-by-step  Jmeter tutorial

How to Download and Install Apache JMeter
JMeter is a java application and it needs Java in the machine so that it can run seamlessly. JMeter can be installed in Windows, Linux, Ubuntu, and Mac operating systems. Before installing JMeter, make sure that you have Java installed in your machine. You can check by hitting the command in your terminal. java -version
If java version is highlighted then java is installed in your system and if nothing appears then install Java by clicking here
How to Download and Install Apache JMeter

  1. Now it is the time to download JMeter. Download the latest version by clicking here. Download the binary file shown below. 

download JMeter
2. The installation of JMeter is very easy. The download binary file must be unzipped into the folder where you want to download JMeter. The unzipped folder would like just as below snapshot.

3. Run JMeter in GUI mode by clicking on the bin folder and then jmeter.bat file. 

4. After clicking, JMeter will open just as below. 
How to Download and Install Apache JMeter
More on Thread Group, Samplers, Listeners and Configuration of JMeter

  • Thread Group is basically the application of multiple threads to AUT. Each thread represents one user who is accessing the application. With the help of the thread group, you can apply a number of threads which is defined by you. 

More on Thread Group, Samplers, Listeners and Configuration of JMeter

  • Samplers allow JMeter to support testing of different protocols such as HTTP, FTP, JDBC, and others. 

  • FTP Request: If you want to do performance testing for the FTP server then you can use the config element of the FTP request. You can send a download a file or upload a file request to the FTP server. You need to add parameters to the sampler such as server name, remote file name (to be downloaded or uploaded), port number, username, and password. 


  • HTTP request

With this help of the HTTP request sampler, you can request an HTTP request to the server. With the help of this request, you can retrieve HTML files and images from the server. 
HTTP request

  • JDBC request

With this help of a JDBC request sampler, you can perform database performance testing. You will be able to send a JDBC request to the server. You should be able to add the SQL query in the query tag. 
JDBC request

  • SMTP Server

If you want to test the mail server then you must use the SMTP server sampler. With this protocol, we can send emails. 

  • CSV Data set Config

If you want to test the website with different users who are having different credentials, you must take the help of CSV data set the config to pass the credentials. You can store the credentials in the text file. It will read lines from the file using a delimiter. 
You must pass the data in a text file the same as the below snapshot.

  • HTTP Cookie Manager

When you log in to some website then your browser stores cookie so that you do not have to login again and again. Similarly, an HTTP cookie manager also does the same task for you. If the website is returning cookie in response, then it will save a cookie for you to maintain a session.  You can add an HTTP cookie manager in your test plan with the help of the config element. When you will record sessions using Blaze meter, it will automatically record cookies in the HTTP cookie manager. 
HTTP Cookie Manager

  • Listeners

Listeners listen to the results fetched by the JMeter and let you analyze the results with the help of visual reports. 

  • View Results Tree: You get to see all the user requests in HTML format using view results listener. 

  • Aggregate Reports

With the help of aggregate reports, you can get total samples, average, median, minimum, maximum, and throughput. 

  • Jmeter Timers

Once you start sending requests to your AUT, you should have timers between each request so that it can simulate real-time behavior and the server does not get confused with so many requests hitting the server. Let us see the different kinds of timers which we can integrate to simulate real-time behavior

  • Constant Timer

It delays each request by the same amount of time. 

  • Gaussian Random Timer

Gaussian Random Timer
It delays each request by any random amount of time. You can define the deviation around which the delays would be adjusted. Also, offset can be added with the gaussian distribution of deviation value and then the total delay time can be calculated. 

How to do load testing with Apache Jmeter? Click here

  • Uniform Random Timer

Uniform Random Timer
It also delays each request by a random amount of time. You can define the random delay maximum time and the offset value which will be added to the random value. 

  • Bean shell, BSF and JSR223 timers

Bean shell timers introduce a delay time between each request using bean shell scripting. BSF timer is used to add a delay time between each request using BSF scripting language. Similarly, JSR223 adds a time delay using the JSR223 scripting language. 
The most used timers are constant and gaussian timers. 
Assertions in JMeter
Assertions are very useful in any kind of testing as verification and validation are the heart of testing. You must compare the results with the expected results to know if we are getting the correct response or not. Let us have a look at the most common types of assertions. 

  • Response assertion

It allows you to check the response against pattern strings. Take an example of Amazon.com. If you hit the server with some product then the response list should contain the product mentioned in the search list given in the request payload. 
You can choose text response and add the test which you want to validate. I have added the text in patterns to test. 
Response assertion
Also, we can validate the status code with the response assertion Select the field to test as response code and mention the code in the patterns to test. 

  • Duration Assertion

Duration Assertion
It tests that the server’s response is received time limits. If it is taking more than the time mentioned, then the assertion will be failed. 

  • Size Assertion

Size Assertion
It checks the response has the expected number of bytes contained in it. If it is above the defined limit, then assertion will be failed. In the below snapshot, if the response has equal or less than 5000 bytes then the assertion will be passed. 

  • XML and HTML Assertion

XML assertion verifies that the response data has correct XML syntax while HTML assertion verifies that the HTML syntax of response is correct. 
Controllers in JMeter
Controllers are used in JMeter to handle requests in an organized manner. There are different kinds of controllers that can be integrated with the JMeter Test Plan. These controllers let you handle the order of requests to be sent to the server. Let us have a look at different kinds of controllers. 

  • Recording Controller

Recording Controller
JMeter will record your testing steps but for storing them in a container you require a recording controller. 

  • Simple Controller

Simpler Controller is just a container to store your requests. You can give a meaningful name to the controller. In this way, if you want to duplicate the requests, you can simply add the simple controller without again and again adding so many requests. It is just for clubbing requests and in the view, results graph you will not see any controller name. 

  • Loop Controller

It allows the requests to run a specified number of times or forever if the number has not been defined. 

  • Transaction Controller

The transaction controller is similar to the simple controller which records the overall time for the requests to finish. It has an additional benefit over simple controller as you will be able to see the controller name which has the clubbed requests instead of individual requests name in view results graph. 

  • Module Controller

Module Controller
It is based on the idea of modularity which says that a set of requests can be clubbed in a simple or transaction controller. A module controller can be used to add any set of requests by selecting the controller. Suppose if you have 3 simple controllers named login, search and logout, then with the module container you will be able to select which you want to simulate again so that you don’t have to add the same requests again and again. 

  • Interleave Controller

This controller pickups one sampler per iteration and it is executed from top to bottom. In the below snapshot, we are having one interleave controller having 3 samplers names News Page and FAQ Page and Gump Page. It is running with 2 threads and a loop count of 5. So, a total of 10 requests will be executed per thread. 

  • Runtime Controller

This controller controls the execution of its samplers for the given time. If you specify the run time as 10 seconds, then JMeter will run your tests for 10 seconds. 
Runtime Controller

  • Random Controller

It is the same as the Interleave controller but instead of running from top to bottom, the random controller picks any requests randomly. 

  • If Controller

It runs the requests only when a set of conditions is fulfilled. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial 7
Processor in JMeter
Processors are used for modifying the samplers. There are two types of processors. 

  • Pre-processor are the processors which are applied before sampler requests. If you want JMeter to check all the links on the page and then retrieve the HTML. You can add HTML link parser which will parse links before a request is made to the server. 
  • Post-Processor: If the request is made to the server and is the requests send you an error then the post-processor should stop the further execution. 

In the above snapshot, if you choose Stop Test Now. This will stop the test if there will be any error in the response.
There is one more post-processor named debug processor which tracks the values of variables that are in the requests. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial 6
Jmeter Distributed (Remote) Testing
It is used to do testing on multiple systems. Applying all the load on a single server is not appropriate and can bring unexpected results. It is good to perform distributed testing with master-slave architecture.         There will be one master who will be driving various clients which will be again JMeter servers which will be putting load to the application under test. The firewall should be switched off in all the machines as it can block the traffic. All machines should share the sub-network and the JMeter version should be kept the same in all the machines to avoid any kind of complexities. 

Steps to setup master-slave architecture (Jmeter tutorial bonus)
1.       Go to the slave server and then go to the bin directory where JMeter is downloaded. You must then execute a file named JMeter-server.bat. Suppose the slave machine has IP address 
2.       Now, go to the master machine and go to the bin directory. There, you have to edit JMeter.properties file. You must add the IP of the slave machine in front of remote_hosts. 
3.       Now for running the tests, you must go to the GUI of JMeter. Select the Run section on the menu bar of JMeter and then select a remote start and then the IP address of the slave machine. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial 5
Detailed Steps to Use JMeter for Performance & Load Testing (Jmeter tutorial exclusive)
1.       Start JMeter. 
2.       Add the BlazeMeter extension to the google chrome browser. Now hit the URL on the google chrome browser and record the flow with BlazeMeter. Once the steps have been captured then you can download the file from BlazeMeter in JMX extension. 
3.       You can then open the JMX file in your JMeter. It will appear as below. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial
4. Now, you must add a number of threads, ramp-up periods, and loop count. Number of Threads is the total number of users accessing the website. The number of times per thread will execute. Ramp-up period is the delay that should be applied before starting the next user. Suppose if you have 1000 users and a ramp period of 1000 seconds then delay between every user request will be 1000/1000 = 1 second.  

5. Now, add the listeners to view the graphical results. Let us add the most used listeners such as View Results and Assertions Results. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial
6. You can also name the requests in different transaction controllers such as login can go to login controller, authenticate, and secure to security controller and logout to sign off the controller. If you want to execute extensive tests, then these controllers will help you running many requests. 
7. Add Post-processor which would stop the tests in case you get any errors in the response. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial
8. Add Constant timer with a time period of 300 ms between each user request.
Apache Jmeter tutorial
9. For each request, you can add assertions to validate that if the requests are giving proper response. Different Response assertions can be used to validate the status code as 200 and to validate the test in the output response. You can also add duration assertion to check if the requests are completed in a particular amount of time. Size assertion can be used to check the response in bytes. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial
10. Now, run the tests using the green run button on top. Now it’s time to analyze view results and assertion results. 
Apache Jmeter tutorial
You have to analyze the throughput and deviation. Throughput is the server’s ability to handle a number of requests per minute. The higher the throughput the higher is the capacity of the server to handle user requests. The deviation is the second parameter which is of utmost importance in this graph to be analyzed. It means the variation from the average. Throughput should be higher, and deviation should be least. These parameters, you will be getting from the client which you have to validate and send a report to the client with these graphs. 
Also, you must remember in this Jmeter tutorial,  is the Assertion report. 
You will see the different assertions been passed and failed in this tree so that you can know which ones are failing. 
One more important listener is the View Results Tree listener. You will be seeing which requests got passed and which ones got failed. The ones which are in green color are passed and the ones which are in red color are failed. 
The last important listener which you can add is the Summary report which will let you know total samples, average, Min, Max, Error %, Deviation, and Throughput. This report is of the utmost importance to stakeholders. Let us see how it looks. 
Conclusion for Jmeter Tutorial
That sums Use JMeter tutorial to use performance and load testing so that your application is robust and can sand load without giving unexpected results. Use the wonderful elements of JMeter to share excellent reports with the stakeholders. 
Hope you are satisfied with our Apache Jmeter tutorial. Please get back to us if you have any suggestions

AngularJS Testing Tutorial – Cypress, Karma and Protractor

AngularJS testing using selenium is not a good approach. Due to the asynchronous behavior of the application selenium is not able to handle the asynchronous calls.
So it is necessary to make use of angularJS testing tools so that asynchronous behavior of the application can be handled. Let us see some good approaches to test angular JS websites below.
Unit Testing AngularJS Apps
To make sure that unit testing is happening easily when it comes to AngularJS Testing, Angular JS has been provided with dependency injection for your XHR requests.  The main reason behind is to simulate requests.  The model can also be tested by altering the DOM directly.  in short, individual sort function can be tested in isolation.
ad angular js
What is Karma?
Karma is a JS runner created by the angular JS team themselves. and is one of the best when it comes to AngularJS Testing.
Jasmine is the framework for testing angular JS code while karma provides us with various methods which makes it easier to call Jasmine tests.
For installing karma, you need to install node JS in your machine. After installing node JS, install Karna using npm installer.
How to test AngularJS apps using Karma?
First of all,
One can install karma using below command
npm install karma –save-dev
After running this command, karma dependencies will be installed. It will be present in package.Json after you run the above command. For making karma available globally use -g option so that you can invoke it from anywhere.
Now, the next step is to install karma plugin which would help us in using the jasmine framework and google chrome browser. Run the below command:
npm install karma-jasmine karma-chrome-launcher –save-dev
After running this command, start making tests in command prompt. For creating tests, run the following command.
mkdir tests        // for making tests directory
touch tests/test1.controller.test.JS     //For creating a test called test1
After creating a test, now it is time to put code in test1.
it(‘1 – 1 should equal 0’,function(){
$scope.y= 1;
Now, after creating the test you should know how to create a test runner, and before creating that we should know the configuration required for the test runner. For configuring the test runner perform the following steps.
karma init karma.conf.JS
Now, for running the tests using the test runner run the following command.
karma start karma.conf.JS
The test output should look like the underlying code.
> @ test /Users/devuser/repos/test1
> ./node_modules/karma/bin/karma start karma.conf.JS
INFO [karma]: Karma server started at http://localhost:8080/
INFO [launcher]: Starting browser Chrome
INFO [Chrome 80]: Connected on socket 2absOkNfa1asasaX0fCJ with id 66276373
Chrome 80 test1 encountered a declaration exception FAILED
ReferenceError: module is not defined
at Suite.<anonymous>(/Users/devuser/repos/repo1/tests/test1.controller.test.JS:3:13)
at /Users/devuser/repos/repo1/tests/test1.controller.test.JS:1:1
Chrome 80): Executed 1 of 1 (1 FAILED) ERROR (0.01 secs / 0.005 secs)
Now, add the following lines to your package.JSon.
“test”:”karma start karma.conf.JS”
Now with the help of this script, we will be able to run any test using npm command. Using the below command, run the jasmine tests.
Now, it is time to add the controller logic and for adding it run the following commands.
mkdir app
touch app/test1.controller.JS
Add the following code in test1.controller.JS
For adding the angular dependencies, run the following commands. Make a directory called lib in your project and then add all libraries in that folder.
mkdir lib
curl -o lib/angular.min.JShttps://code.angularJS.org/1.4.0-rc.2/angular.min.JS
curl -o lib/angular-mocks.JShttps://code.angularJS.org/1.4.0-rc.2/angular-mocks.JS
Now, it is time to edit the karma config file so that it comes to know about the test folder and the library folder so that jasmine tests can run successfully.
Now, run the tests using the npm test. Your test will run now successfully.
How to test AngularJS applications using Protractor?
Protractor work flow
Protractor is impeccable when it comes to AngularJS Testing. In Angular JS applications are hard to test since the application web elements cannot be captured very easily.
Angular JS applications have some extra attributes like ng-repeater, ng-controller, and ng-model which can be identified using Selenium locators. Protractor is a NodeJS program which is written in JavaScript. The pre-requisite of using Protractor is Selenium and NPM.
Let us see how you can proceed with the installation of Protractor. Run the following command to start with the installation of the protractor.
npm install –g protractor
It will install protractor in your system. Using  -g will make it available globally in your system. Now, after installation of protractor If you want to check the version of the protractor. You can find the following by running the following command.

Protractor –version
For running the protractor tests against the application under test, you would need webDriver manager. Now, you must update the webDriver manager to the latest version. For updating it, run the following command.
webdriver-manager update
Now you must be imagining how would you start the webdriver-manager. You can start it by running in the background by running the following command. It will then listen to all your protractor tests which have to be run against the angular JS application.
webdriver-manager start
Now to see if the webdriver manager plugin if it is properly running or not. Go to the URL: http://localhost:4444/wd/hub/static/resource/hub.htmland you will see the webdriver manager plugin running on it.
Now, we will see how to design the test cases in protractor. To start with designing o the test cases you need 2 files. One is the spec file and the other is the config file. The configuration file has the location for the protractor tests. Also remember, chrome is the default browser for a protractor. While the second file, the spec file has the logics and locators which would be used to interact with the application.
Now, let’s take a test case in which we have to go to URL: https://angularJS.org, and then you have to type your name in the textbox. After entering you will see your name as Hello Name!
Now, let us start with the steps which are required for making this test case and to execute it. In your folder, you will have 2 files. One is spec.JS and the other is conf.JS. The logic for spec.JS which will be there in it.
describe(‘Enter yourname, function() {it(‘should add a Name as your name, function() {browser.get(‘https://angularJS.org’); element(by.model(‘yourName’)).sendKeys(‘Name’);  var name= element(by.xpath(‘html/body/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/div[2]/div/h1’));expect(name.getText()).toEqual(‘Hello Name!’);  });});
Now, if you see that describe comes from the Jasmine framework. It is basically a module and it can be a class or a function. We are giving this module name as “Enter Your Name”. So, for starting the function we start it with describe keyword. Just like a class can have many methods or a TestNG class can have so many test cases. Similarly, in the Jasmine framework, it starts a new test case.
This command is used for opening the browser with URL mentioned as https://angularJS.org. Now, you must identify the elements. So, you have to inspect the element just like you do in Selenium. You can use By.model for the elements who have ng-model as an attribute.
You can store Web elements in a variable. You can declare a variable using var keyword. Now, it is time to have some assertions. You get the text out of this web element and then compare it to the expected text.
Now, you are done with spec.JS and let us start with the conf.JS. You have to define the path of spec here so that tests can be identified easily.
Paste the following code in conf.JS
exports.config = {seleniumAddress: ‘http://localhost:4444/wd/hub’,  specs: [‘spec.JS’]};
Selenium address is the location where it can communicate with the selenium webdriver. Spcs tell the location of spec.JS
Now, for running the test, first navigate to the directory in which spec.JS and conf.JS are located. First thing to keep in mind that webdriver-manager should be started. If not started, you have to first start it with following command.
webdriver-manager start
Now, it’s time to run the configuration file. After starting the webdriver-manager plugin, run the config.JS file using protractor. Fire the following command.
protractor conf.JS
You have seen how many specs got passed and how many got failed.
Now let’s see how the failure is going to be reflected in the console. We make the assertion false.
Modify the code in spec.JS
describe(‘Enter your name, function() {it(‘should add a Name as your name, function() {browser.get(‘https://angularJS.org’); element(by.model(‘yourName’)).sendKeys(‘Name’);  var name= element(by.xpath(‘html/body/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/div[2]/div/h1’));expect(name.getText()).toEqual(‘Hello!’);  });});
You will see F which means failed test case. You will get to know the complete description where the test case got failed.
Now, you must be imagining how would the reports be integrated with Jasmine. Let’s install the Jasmine reporter. Run the following command:
npm install –save-dev jasmine-reporters@^2.0.0      
If you want jasmine reporter to installed globally. For installing globally, run the following command.
npm install –g jasmine-reporters@^2.0.0
You have to now modify the conf.JS. You have to add Jasmine reporter in it. Add the following code in it.
exports.config = {seleniumAddress: ‘http://localhost:4444/wd/hub’,      capabilities: {          ‘browserName’: ‘Chrome’      },      specs: [‘spec.JS’],     framework: ‘jasmine2’ ,onPrepare: function() {          var jasmineReporters = require(‘C:/Users/User1/node_modules/jasmine-reporters’);jasmine.getEnv().addReporter(new jasmineReporters.JUnitXmlReporter(null, true, true)          );     }   };
Now, run the tests using protractor conf.JS. You will see the junitresult.xml in the folder path given in conf.JS.
Open the XML file and see the result of the test case. In this way, you can take the help of protractor to test angular JS websites.
How to test the AngularJS app using Cypress?
Cypress is very close to the application. It just has a very thin layer between production code and testing code. It is Javascript E2E testing framework.
It is an open-source AngularJS Testing framework Cypress has bundled various packages such as Mocha, Chai, and Sinon. The only supportive language with Cypress is Javascript. When you open the cypress application using command cypress open, the following application will open.
This application is divided into two parts. On the left side, you write commands. There are different keywords to it. VISIT is for opening the URL and GET is for getting a webelement. CLICK is for clicking on the webelement. Using ASSERT, we can add assertions to our test cases.
For installing Cypress, you should have node.JS installed in your machine. You can then use the npm installer to add dependencies of Cypress.
npmicypress -D
Now for opening the cypress test runner, run the following command.
npx cypress open
If you want your application and Cypress to run at the same time then you have to make some changes in your package.JSon.
“cypress”: “concurrently \”ng serve\” \”cypress open\””
Add these lines in package.JSon.
Now, run the following command
npm run cypress
When you add a new project in cypress then you will have below folder structure.
Fixtures have static data that has to be used by your tests. You can use them by cy.fixture() command.  In the integration folder, you will have your integration tests. The plugin helps you to tweak to your test cases. Just like plugins have a file named index.JS which have a method which will run before every spec file. In Support files, you can have your reusable code.
Now, it is time to create your first test in the integration folder. You name it as test1.spec.JS. You will see it in the Cypress test runner also. Cypress API is present under the global cy project. Now let us put some code in it.
describe(“Test1”, () => {
it(“should visit home page”, () => {
It makes use of description and it blocks from the mocha syntax. It makes the beginning of the test cases. Once you will run this test In the test explorer, on the right side, the execution starts.
When you will run Cypress for the first time, you will see that the cypress.JSon file will get generated. In this, you can store your configuration values. Now let’s store our base URL in cypress. JSON so that we don’t have to change the URL in every test case.
It’s time to change the code in spec.JS also.
it(“shouldvisit home page”,()=>{
Now for getting webelement, you can make use of a cypress selector background in the test runner. It is present on the left side of the test runner. You can get the XPath from there.
Use this way to get the webelements.
cy.url().should(‘include’, ‘/register’)
This assertion will check the check has registered keywords in it. Hence, we are done with the first test case in cypress.

Now, we have seen different ways of AngularJS Testing. Make use o
f these and test the application in the best possible ways. Optimize your code and have the best test integration practices so that the client can be satisfied with your test metrics. All the best.

Protractor vs Selenium: What are the major differences?

Protractor vs selenium who will win? Both the test automation tools are equally good. However, one has some features that make it supreme to the other.
Test Automation is the need of the hour and is widely adopted by the testing teams across the globe; to assist testers in automation testing several testing tools are now available in the markets.
To achieve the best testing results, it is very important to choose the most appropriate testing tool according to your requirements.
Sometimes, testers sometimes get stuck between two automation testing tools.
And if you are the one, who is having a difficult time picking the aptest testing tool out of Selenium vs Protractor, then go ahead and read this article to find out a solution.

Selenium is used for automation testing of web applications and is an open-source testing tool.
Selenium is meant only for web-based applications and can be used across various browsers and platforms.
Selenium is an all-inclusive suite that is licensed under Apache License 2.0. It constitutes of four different tools under it:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
  • WebDriver
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC)
  • Selenium Grid

Selenium IDE
Selenium IDE GIF
The simplest among all the four tools under Selenium is Selenium IDE. Selenium IDE is used to record the sequence of the workflow.
This Firefox plugin is easy to install and is also companionable with other plugins.
It has some of the most basic features and is largely used for prototyping purposes. It is very easy to learn and use.
Selenium RC
Selenium Remote Control (RC) allows the testers to choose their preferred programming language.
It’s API is quite matured and supports extra features to assists tasks beyond even browser-based tasks.
Selenium supports  Java, C#, PHP, Python, Ruby, and PERL and can perform even difficult level testing.
Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver is an advanced version of Selenium RC. It provides a modern and steady way to test web applications.
Selenium directly interacts with the browser and retrieves the results.
An added benefit of WebDriver is that it does not require JavaScript for Automation. It also supports Java, C#, PHP, Python, Ruby, and PERL.
Selenium Grid
Selenium grod
The main benefit of automation tools is faster execution and time-saving. In Selenium, Selenium Grid is responsible for the same.
It is specially curated for parallel execution of tests, on various browsers and environments; it is based on the concept of hub and nodes.
The main advantage of using this is time saving and faster execution.
What Protractor is all about?
Protractor is a powerful testing tool for testing AngularJS applications.
Though it is specially designed for AngularJS applications, it works equally well for other applications as well.
It works as a Solution integrator by assimilating the dominant technologies like Jasmine, Cucumber, Selenium, NodeJS, Web driver, etc.
Protractor also has a high capability to write automated regressions tests for web applications. Its development was started by Google but was later turned into an open-source framework.
Why do we need Protractor?
Here are a few reasons to convince you to use Protractor:

  • Generally, most of the angular JS applications have HTML elements like ng-model and ng-controller, Selenium could not trace these elements, whereas Protractor can easily trace and control such web application attributes.
  • Protractor can perform multiple browser testing on various browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, IE11, Edge. It assists in quick and easy testing on various browsers.
  • Protractor is suitable for both Angular and Non-Angular web applications.
  • Because of the parallel execution feature, it allows executing test cases in multiple instances of the browser simultaneously.
  • It permits the installation of various packages as and when needed. In simple words working with packages is easier in Protractor.
  • Working with multiple assertion libraries is possible with Protractor.
  • Protractor supports various cloud testing platforms like SauceLabs and CrossBrowserTesting, etc.
  • It assists in faster testing.
  • Runs on both real browsers and headless browsers.

What is Selenium Protractor?
If the app you are developing is on AngularJSit’s always a better option to use Protractor since

  • it’s meant for AngularJS apps
  • We can create customization from Selenium in creating Angular JS apps
  • Protractor can run on top of selenium giving all the advantages of Selenium
  • You can use API exposed by Webdriver and Angular
  • Uses the same web driver as that of Selenium

What is the best IDE for protractor?

  • Visual Studio
  • CodeSublime
  • TextAtom Editor
  • Brackets
  • Eclipse
  • EclipseVisual Studio
  • ProfessionalWebstorm

Difference between Protractor vs Selenium
Here are the basic points of differences between Selenium and Protractor:

Comparison Basis Selenium Protractor
Supported Front End Technology-Based Web Application Supports all front end technology Specially designed for Angular and AngularJS applications, but can be used for Non-angular applications also.
Supported Languages C#, Java, Haskell, Perl. PHP, JavaScript, Objective-C, Ruby, Python, R JavaScript and TypeScript.
Supported Browsers Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer ( IE), Microsoft Edge, Opera, Safari,  HtmlUnitDriver Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer ( IE), Microsoft Edge, Safari
Synchronization or Waiting Does not support automatic synchronization between tests and application. It needs to be explicitly synchronized using different waits. Supports Automatic wait for Angular applications, but they are not applicable for Non-angular applications. But you can explicitly synchronize waits in Protractor.
Supported Locators Strategies Supports common locator strategies like Id, className, name, linkText, tagName, partial link text, XPath and CSS  for all web applications Supports common locator strategies like Id, className, name, linkText, tagName, partial link text, XPath and CSS  for all web applications plus it also supports angular specific locator strategies such as model, repeater, binding, buttonText, option, etc. also permits the creation of custom locators.
Supported Test Frameworks
Based on language binding, it supports various Test Frameworks C#- NUnit,
Java- JUnit, TestNG
Python- PyUnit, PyTest
JavaScript- WebDriverJS, WebDriverIO
Protractor aids Jasmine and Mocha. The protractor is provided with Jasmine as a default framework.
Support for BDD Yes. (Serenity, Cucumber, JBehave, etc). Yes. Mocha,  Jasmine, Cucumber and Serenity/JS
Reporting Requires third-party tools:- TestNG, Extent Report, Allure Report, etc. Requires third-party tools:- protractor-beautiful-reporter, protractor-HTML-reporter etc
Managing browser drivers Requires third-party tools like  WebdriverManager to sync browser version and driver. Requires web driver-manager CLI to automatic sync between browser version and driver for Chrome and Firefox.
Parallel Testing Requires third-party tools like TestNG. Supports parallel testing.
Cost Open-source Open-source
Nature of Execution Synchronous Asynchronous
Needed Technical Skills Average Moderate
Support No official support operates on open community model No official support operates on open community model
Ease to automate Angular Applications Not easy, a lot of sync issues and difficult to find real wait conditions. It is made for angular applications hence it is easy to automate Angular Applications
Test Execution Speed Slower Faster
Ease of Scripting Requires more lines of code and hence scripting is difficult. Even more difficult than Selenium.
Support for Mobile Application No direct support Direct support
CI/CD integration Yes Yes
Docker Support Yes Yes
Debugging Easy Difficult
Test Script Stability Less stable scripts More stable scripts

Is protractor better than selenium?
Both Selenium and protractor are automated test tools for web applications.
Both are used to automate Angular Applications. As Protractor is specially designed for angular applications, so if you are testing angular applications, it is better to opt for a protractor.
By now you would have been pretty clear about the differences in both. and it would now be easier for you to choose the better tool for your requirements and the winner in Protractor vs selenium will change according to it.
Study your requirements clearly and pick the aptest tool for more efficient testing results.

15 Top Selenium WebDriver Commands For Test Automation

The use of selenium webdriver helps in testing every aspect of the web application. It is an open-source website automation tool that is used mostly by the automation testers.
With the help of Selenium Webdriver, applications are tested to see whether they are working as expected or not.
To ease your work we will provide you with some basic commands list which you can use in selenium webdriver. Using these commands it will make things easier for you.
Basic Commands List for Selenium Web driver
1. To Select Multiple Items in a Drop down
2. get() commands
3. Use of linkText() and partialLinkText() command
4. Form Submission Command
5. Using quit() and close() Commands
6. Command to handle Multiple Frames
7. findElements(By,by) and click() Command
8. isEnabled() Command
9. Using findElements(By, by) with sendKeys() Command
10. Using findElements(By, by) with getText() Command
11. Using findElements(By, by) with size() Command
12. select() Command
13. navigate() Command
14. getScreenshotAs() Command
15. pageLoadTimeout(time,unit) Command
1. To Select Multiple Items in a Drop down
There are two options which you can use to select items in a drop-down i.e. single select dropdown and multi-select drop-down. Single select dropdown allows the user to select only one item from the drop-down whereas Multiple-select dropdown allows the user to select multiple items from the dropdown list.
You can use this code to generate a list in which you can select multiple items in a drop-down.
<select name=”Country” multiple size=”6”>
<option value=”India”>India</option>
<option value=”Belgium”>Belgium</option>
<option value=”England”>England</option>
<option value=”France”>France</option>
<option value=”Italy”>Italy</option>
When a form is submitted the value has to be sent to a server, this value is sent specifically by the value attribute. Content will pass as a value if the value attribute is not specified.
Syntax- <option value=”value”> where ‘value’ is the value which has to be sent o the server.
2. get() commands

  • get(): This command is used to launch a new browser with the specific URL in the browser. This command uses a single string type which is generally the URL of the application under test. The syntax of the command can be given as driver.get(http://facebook.com)
  • getCurrentUrl(): The command is used to fetch the current URL of the webpage which user is accessing. It returns a string value and doesn’t need any external parameters. The syntax of the command is given as driver.getCurrentURL();
  • getTitle(): This command fetches the title of the webpage which user is currently using. This command doesn’t require any external parameters and returns a string value. If the webpage doesn’t have any title it will return a null string. The syntax of the command is given as String new = driver.getTitle();
  • getAttribute(): This command is used to fetch the value of the specific attribute. This command uses a string which refers to an attribute whose value we want to know and returns a string value. The syntax of the command is given as driver.findElements(By.name(“x”)).getAttribute(“value”);
  • getText(): This command is used fetch the inner text of the element including sub-elements. This command returns a string value and doesn’t need any external parameters. This command is often used for verification or errors in the message or content in the web pages. The syntax of the command is given as String new = driver.findElements(By.name(“Inner_text”)).getText();
  • getClass(): This command is used to fetch the class object. The syntax of the command is given as driver.getClass();
  • getPageSource(): This command is used to fetch the page of the web page which user is currently working on. This command returns a string value and doesn’t require any other parameters. The syntax of the command is given as String new = driver.getPageSource();

3. Use of linkText() and partialLinkText() command
These commands are used to access the hyperlinks which are available on a webpage. By using these commands user is redirected to another page.
Let us consider there are two links mentioned in the webpage Google and Yahoo.

  • linkText(): Twitter and Yahoo links can be accessed using the command driver.findElements(By.linkText(“Twitter”)).click();

This command finds the element by using linkText() and then click on that link. The user is then redirected to the page followed by the link.

  • partialLinkText(): Links can be accessed by using command driver.findElements(By.partialLinkText(“Twitt”)).click();

This command finds the element partially by using partialLinkText() and then clicks on it.
4. Form Submission Command
Almost every webpage contain forms which have to be filled by the user. There are various types of forms like login, registration, file upload or new signup etc. While testing of the website the command submit() is used. It triggers the submit button without clicking on the submit button. The code for the form submission is as follows:
//First Name
<input type=”text” name=”FirstName”>
//Last Name
<inpur type=”text” name=”LastName”>
//Email ID
<input type=”text” name=”EmailID”>
//Mobile Number
<input type=”text” name=”MobileNo”>
<input type=”submit” value=”submit”>
5. Using quit() and close() Commands
These commands are used to close the web pages which are currently used by the user.

  • quit(): The quit() command is used to close down all the web pages in the web browser. All the web pages which are being opened by the users are closes down instantly. The syntax of the command is given as driver.quit(); This command doesn’t need any other parameters and doesn’t return any value.
  • close(): the close() command is used to close down the current webpage which is being opened by the user. This command only closes a single webpage unlike quit(). This command doesn’t need any other parameters and doesn’t return any value. The syntax of the command is given as driver.close();

6. Command to handle Multiple Frames
There are scenarios where the users have to work on various frames and iframes. The script tester verifies the working of the frames through script code. The illustration of the code is given below where there are different frames in the webpage.
<title>Window handle</title>
<iframe id=”FirstFrame”>
<iframe id=”SecondFrame”>
<input type=”text” id=”Name”>FirstName</input>
<input type=”text” id=”Name”>LastName</input>
<button id=”Submit”>Submit</button>
In this HTML code, two iframes are present. Thus to access the second frame user has to navigate through the first frame. Only by dealing first frame user are allowed to navigate to the second frame. It is impossible for the user to access directly the second frame without using the first frame.

  • Frame(index): swtichTo().frame(0);
  • Frame(frame name):switchTo().frame(Frame name”);
  • Frame(Web element):switchTo().defaultContent();

These commands can be used by the user to return back to the main window.

  • Selecting iframe by ID: switchTo().frame(“Frame ID”);

7. findElements(By,by) and click() Command
This command is used by the user to search or locate the first element on the webpage. The parameters which are used in the syntax fetch the element on the current working page. Click, submit or another type of actions are mainly used by this command. The syntax of this command is given as driver.findElements(By.Name(”login”)).click();

Also Read : Automation Test For Website and Web Apps Using Selenium

This command is used to locate and searches the first element of the web page with the name ”login” and then clicks on it.
8. isEnabled() Command
This command is used to check whether the element in the selenium webdriver is enabled or not. The syntax of this command is given as
Boolean check = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“Name”)).isEnabled();
This command finds the element and checks whether the element is enabled or disabled.
9. Using findElements(By, by) with sendKeys() Command
This command is typically used for filling in forms. The general syntax for this command is given as driver.findElements(By.name(“FirstName”)).sendkeys(“Tony”);
This command will search for the first name field and then enter the value “Tony” in it.
10. Using findElements(By, by) with getText() Command
With the help of the getText() command, it will get the inner element of the webpage. By using this command we can store the value of the element into the string object. The syntax for this command can be given as
String new = driver.findElements(By.TagName(“NewFile”)).getText();
This command will look for the field name “new file” then take its inner file and stores it into the string name “new”.
11. Using findElements(By, by) with size() Command
With the help of this command, we can verify whether the element which we are looking for is present in the webpage or not. The syntax for this command can be given as
Boolean check = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“FileName”)).size()! = 0;
It will check the element whether it is available or not. The Boolean will set the “Check” to TRUE or FALSE respectively.
12. select() Command
This command is used to select or deselect the values from the list. To select a value we can use different commands like selectByVisbibleText(), selectByValue() or selectByIndex() according to the situations. The syntax for these commands can be given as
These syntaxes are used for selection only. We can also deselect the values from the list by the following syntax.
“New file” is the element containing the values which has to be selected.

13. navigate() Command
This command is used to navigate between different URLs in the webpage. By using this command we can navigate back and forth in the current webpage. The syntax for the command can be given as
This command will help the user to navigate http://www.Google.com, navigate back and navigate forward.
14. getScreenshotAs() Command
This command will enable the user to screenshot the entire page in the selenium webdriver. The syntax of the command is given as
File screenshot = ((TakeScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(outputType.FILE);
FileUtils.copyFile(screenshot, new File(“c:\\ss.jpeg”));
This command will take the screenshot and will save the file in C drive as ss.jpeg
15. pageLoadTimeout(time,unit) Command
When the servers are down or there is an issue in the network, the page often takes more time to load. This might cause an error in the program. To avoid this situation, a command is used to set a wait time. The syntax can be given as
driver.manager().timeouts().pageLoadTimeout(200, SECONDS);
By using this command 200 seconds will be enabled. It will wait 200 seconds for a page to load.
16. Switch to window
17. Find the location of the element
WebElement name = driver.findElement(By.id(“Name”));
Point point = name.getLocation();
String strLine = System.getProperty(“line.separator”);
System.out.println(“X cordinate# ” + point.x + strLine + “Y cordinate# ” + point.y);
19. Find the value of CSS property
WebElement name = driver.findElement(By.id(“Name”));
String strAlign = name.getCssValue(“text-align”);
20. Check the visibility of web command
WebElement user = driver.findElement(By.id(“User”));
boolean is_displayed = user.isDisplayed();
//Or write the code in the below style.
boolean is_displayed = driver.findElement(By.id(“User”)).isDisplayed();
We genuinely hope that this selenium webcommands is of great use to you

Also Read : 10 Best Automation Testing Tools For 2018

Automation Testing Tutorial For Beginners

Automation testing not only relieves testers of repeatedly executing the same test cases again and again but also enhances the execution speed and decreases the chances of human prone errors. Will not you like something as effective as automation testing to be on your stride?
Let us learn more about automation testing here
What is Automation Testing?
Automation Testing, automates the manual testing nullifying human efforts.  It uses an automation tool to run your test cases. These automation tools do not require any human intervention and automatically enters test data into the System under Test, compare expected and actual results and generate detailed test reports.
Why do I spend Extra Money on Automation testing?
Below mentioned benefits of automation testing will definitely convince you to consider automation testing for your system and will assure you it will not be a waste of money.

  1. Sometimes you have to repeatedly execute the same test cases for many numbers of times, test automation tool allows you to record the test suite and re-execute it when required.
  2. Thus it eliminates the boredom of executing the same test case again and again. It also improves the ROI as no human intervention is required for automated test suits.
  3. Automation testing saves time, as manually testing all scenarios for various devices and browsers can be very time-consuming.
  4. Testing multilingual sites manually can be very difficult; hence automation testing is very beneficial in such a case.
  5. In case of long test cases, they can be left unattended whole night in automated testing.
  6. Increases the speed of testing.
  7. It gives wider coverage of test cases.
  8. Manual testing can be boring at times and can hence be error-prone; this issue is very well taken care by automated testing.

But it is not a good idea to automate all type of testing, so be particular in deciding when to automate your test cases and when not.
Which Test Cases should We Automate?
Our main aim is to get a higher ROI. Based on it, here are few test cases you can consider automating

  • High Risk – Business Critical test cases
  • Test cases to be executed repeatedly
  • Tedious or difficult test cases
  • Time-consuming test cases

There are a few types of test cases that are better suited for manual testing. So it is better not to automate such test cases.

  • New test cases that are not even manually executed even once
  • Test Cases with frequently changing requirements
  • Test cases executed on an ad-hoc basis.

What are the Common Myths of Automation Testing?
Many myths are linked to software testing. It is important to be well aware of these misconceptions before you kick off your automation testing
Some of the common myths associated with automation testing are:

  • Automation completely replaces Manual Testing

Automation testing is definitely not a complete replacement of manual testing. There are many unpredicted scenarios that might require human intervention and there are some errors that are better determined by manual testing.

  • Automation Testing is not necessary, Manual Testing provides a solution to all kinds of Testing.

There is another side of the coin where some people believe that everything can be done manually. But there are some scenarios like regression testing where manual testing cannot be effective and might take longer to accomplish the tasks.

  • Automation consumes a Lot of Time

It might seem that automating the tests is time-consuming, but if we consider the complete picture, once automated, the automation testing can save us a lot of time.

  • Automation Is Very Easy

Automation testing as believed is not an easy-peasy task. Writing test scripts requires knowledge and experience and is definitely not an easy task. But if you compare it with manual testing, it definitely is easier if you know how to write the test cases.

  • Automation is only for Regression Testing

To much automation testing is only meant for regression testing. But the fact is that it covers many other areas like performance, product setup, security, compatibility, and many others.

  • Automation testing does not require cooperation between the Testers

It is completely a myth that automation testing has nothing to do with cooperation among the testers. Software development as a whole requires a fine-tuning among the engineers and automation testing is no different and requires close cooperation between the testers.

  • It returns a Faster ROI

Automation testing is a long term process and expecting immediate returns on your automation investments is a huge mistake. You have to be very patient to start getting a positive ROI.

  • Automation Testing only detects Bugs

If you are the one who believes automation testing only finds the errors then let us acknowledge you with its other benefits. It delivers valuable data and insights which help in improving the end product and solve many technical issues.
What should you do and what not in Automation testing?
There are always Dos and Don’ts for everything. These dos and don’ts are very important to perform your task effectively. Here are dos and don’ts of Automation testing that can help you conduct your automation testing effectively.
The Dos of Test Automation

  1. Break Your Tests Into smaller And Autonomous Scenarios

Shorter and more specific scenarios can help you detect issues with ease. Single test scenario makes troubleshooting difficult.

  1. Choose the Tests to Automate wisely

Automating all the test cases are not a wise idea, so be very ingenious while selecting the test cases to automate.

  1. Start small, don’t hurry

Don’t be in a hurry to create the complete test suits all at once. Follow the project’s workflow and automate only what is required.

  1. Set Priorities

Prioritize your work. Spend more time on test cases for the functions that are more crucial the simple and less important ones.

  1. Employ Professionals

Using an expert hand for your automation testing requirements can promise you greater benefits.
The Don’ts of Test Automation

  1. Do Not start Automating From the First Day Itself

Don’t be in a haste to automate your test cases. Give your project a little time and understand the scope of automation for your project.

  1. Don’t Try Running Everything at Every Time

It’s certainly not a good idea to test everything all the time. Spend time on testing only the functionalities that require testing and don’t waste time on testing everything all the time.

  1. Don’t Automate All the Manual Tests

Automating everything is not a good idea. Manual testing holds a very important place in software testing and is capable of finding the most unexpected defects at time.

  1. Don’t Automate Everything

Don’t just automate everything; it could be simply a waste of time and money.

  1. Don’t Ignore Further Development

Don’t ever think your work of automation testing is done. Keep a track of developments in the project and don’t miss to add test cases for them.
How to automate Test Cases?
Automating test cases follows a predefined process. Here are the basic steps to follow while automating your test cases.

  1. Test Tool selection

Test Tool we select is largely dependent on the technology your application is built on. It’s a good idea to conduct a Proof of Concept of Tool on Application Under Test.

  1. Define the scope of Automation

The scope is the part of your Application that has:

  • Scenarios with extensive data
  • Business important features
  • Functionalities that is common among applications.
  • Technical feasibility
  • Components with Reusable test cases
  • Complex test cases
  • Components to be tested across cross-browser testing
  1. Planning, Design, and Development

This phase is all about automation, strategy, design, and development. Your automation planning and design should include the below-given points:

  • Shortlisted Automation tools
  • Design and features of the Framework
  • Automation testbed preparation
  • Scripting and execution schedule and timelines
  • All the Deliverables

  1. Test Execution

Finally, it’s time to execute the test cases. In this phase, input test data are set to run and after execution, the test report is produced. You can directly execute test cases through automation tools or through test management tools that further invoke the automation tools.

  1. Maintenance

Maintenance is an on-going and a very important phase of automation testing life cycle. Whenever new functionalities are added to the system under test, automation scripts need to be reviewed and revised. Hence maintenance becomes important to enhance the effectiveness of automation scripts.
What are the various tactics for Automation Testing?
Automation testing is a crucial part of STLC. To accomplish it you can follow any of these three approaches.

  • Code-Driven: Code-driven automation testing, which is popularly used in agile software focuses on validating whether the code works as per expectations or not.
  • Graphical user interface (GUI) testing: It is meant for GUI rich applications. User actions can be recorded here and can be analysed multiple times. It supports test cases in multiple languages like C#, Java, Perl, Python, etc.
  • Test Automation Framework: A Set of automation guidelines, modularity, project hierarchies, concepts, coding standards, reporting mechanism, practices, processes, test data injections, etc. are predefined to help execute automation testing effectively.

These are the various methods that you can deploy to automate your software testing. Let us now learn in detail about the most important one – Framework for Automation
A Set of automation guidelines, modularity, project hierarchies, concepts, coding standards, reporting mechanism, practices, processes, test data injections, etc. are predefined to help execute automation testing effectively.  You can use these guidelines while automating test cases to get effective results.
What are the advantages of Test Automation Framework?

  1. Enhances code Reusability
  2. Maintains test consistency
  3. Gives Maximum coverage
  4. Minimum code usage
  5. Recovery scenario
  6. Low-cost code maintenance
  7. Minimal manual intervention
  8. Data involvement when required
  9. Reduced training period
  10. Easy Reporting
  11. Enhanced test structuring

There are five types of frameworks used in automation software testing:

  • Data-driven Framework: It focuses on separating test scripts logic from test data.
  • Linear Scripting Framework: Focuses on sequential or linear recording and replaying of test scripts.
  • Modular Testing Framework: Dividing application into numerous modules and creating their test scripts separately.
  • Hybrid Testing Framework: A combination of all the frameworks to pull the powers of each.
  • Keyword-driven Framework: test scripting is done based on the keywords specified in the excel sheet and accordingly tests are executed.

What are the Automation Testing Best Practices?
The below given best practices can help you increase your ROI and to get the best result from your automation testing:

  • It is always advisable to set the scope of Automation before starting the project. It helps in setting the right expectations from the project.
  • Selecting the right automation tool can make a huge difference in your testing results. You should always select the tool that suits your requirements and not the one with the best ratings and high popularity.
  • The framework plays a very important role in the success of automation testing. So spend time in creating a framework for your automation.
  • Always follow the best Scripting Standards. You can follow the below-given standards to meet your requirements.
  • Create uniform comments, scripts, and indentation of the code
  • Be prepared for Exception handling; the automation tool should be well prepared to handle unexpected errors and exceptions in.
  • For the ease of testers, the error logging messages should be standardized.
  • Defining the Success of automation requires some metrics. You cannot just compare the manual effort with the automation effort. Below are some of the metrics that you need to take into account to define your automation test success:
  • Defects percentage
  • Productivity improvement
  • Automation testing time for each cycle
  • Minimal release Time
  • Index for Customer Satisfaction

What are the Advantages of Automation Testing?
Automation testing has many advantages and it is a good idea to consider it for your testing whenever required.

  • It is around 70% quicker than manual testing
  • The results of automation testing are more reliable and less prone to human intervened errors
  • Automation testing Guarantee Consistency
  • It saves a lot of Time and Cost
  • Higher ROI
  • Increases accuracy
  • Does not require any Human Intervention for execution
  • It enhances Efficiency
  • Test scripts can be re-used whenever required, hence saving a lot of time for recreating them.
  • Automation testing gives a wider coverage of test cases

Know More: Top 10 Automation Testing Tools 2019

What are the Applications of Automation Testing?
Automation can cover a big part of testing. Some of the common applications of automation testing are:

  • Performance testing: Automated testing is very efficient for testing the performance of your software product.
  • Test data generation:  Automation testing can help you to program tests to automatically generate entry data.
  • Product Setup:  Automating Product setup ensures that your software product is efficiently set up.
  • User interface components’ interaction: It takes care of smooth interaction between various components of a user interface.
  • Regression Testing:  Automated regression testing helps to avoid errors incurred because of code changes.
  • Security Testing:  Atomization of tests helps in easy detection of security-related bugs if any.
  • Functional (White-Box and Black-Box):  Functional testing can be a daunting task at times; it is a wise idea to automate functional testing.
  • Installation / Integration / System: Testing installation/integrations and system bugs can be head honking if done manually. Automation of such test cases can easily ensure proper installation and integration of components within a system.
  • Smoke and Sanity Testing: Automated scripts can reliably conduct both smoke and sanity testing.
  • Usability/UI/GUI Testing: The user interface, GUI and usability testing are other tests that can be better if automated
  • Compatibility: Compatibility testing is another task which is very time consuming and daunting if done manually, automating compatibility testing can promise better results and wider coverage.
  • Internationalization: Internationalization is better when automated.
  • User Acceptance: User acceptation demands greater accuracy, and Automation promises you enhanced accuracy.

How to Choose Which Automation Testing Tool is best for me?
You cannot just randomly pick an automation tool for your automation testing. Picking up the right tool is very important for getting the maximum benefit out of your automation testing. The following criteria can help you pick the best automation tool:

  • Environment Support
  • Testing of Database
  • Ease of use
  • Image Testing
  • Object identification
  • Object Mapping
  • Tools that support various types of test
  • Error Recovery Testing
  • Scripting Language Used
  • A tool that can identify objects in every environment
  • Multiple testing frameworks support
  • Easy to debug the automation software scripts
  • Minimal training cost
  • Detailed test reports and results

What are the Various Automation Testing Tools?
Selecting the best automation tool is a challenging task. We would advise you to first identify your requirements, study about different automation tools and their features and then choose the one that fits your requirements the best.
Here are the Names of some very Popular Automation Testing Tools.

  • Selenium – It is a very popular automation testing tool for a web application, supporting various platforms and browsers.
  • Watir – It is an open source automation testing tool for web applications. It is created using Ruby libraries.
  • Ranorex – Ranorex is a GUI automated testing tool for multiple environments and devices.
  • Appium – Appium is known to be one of the best Open source mobile automation testing tool.

Can We trust all Testers for our Automation Testing needs?
With time automation testing has become very simple and a manual tester can easily accomplish it if he has a good business.
Any tester can execute expert’s created test automation scripts.
But there is another side of the coin, there are different skill sets that require more technical knowledge which is not easy to be learned by a manual tester overnight.
Today a test automation expert is expected to design an overall automation strategy for the entire product.
They require knowledge to select the right set of tools for every stage and give a cost-effective and unified integration strategy.
Automation testers are also expected to develop functions that can reduce manual testing and test data generation work.
Hope you would have found this article informative!

What is a Test Harness in Software Testing?

Harness in a literal sense is a gear that is used to take control of something. In software testing, it is none different. In testing terms, It refers to a collection of software, test drivers, test data and other supporting tools that are constructed to test an application by executing it under different environments and analyzing its results. It uses test libraries to execute tests and generate a report.

A test harness in layman language is to make automation framework and use its constituent elements to take charge of the testing activity to get the best results.

What are the objectives of Test Harness?

  • Automate the testing process.
  • Helps in test case optimization by selecting specific tests to run
  • Execute test suites of test cases.
  • Organizes a run time environment
  • Generate associated test reports.
  • Analyzes test results.

What are the Features of Test Harness?

  • Executes test suit in the framework
  • Assists measure the code coverage at the code level.
  • Enters test data to an application under test
  • Captures the output from the software under test
  • Offers flexibility and support for debugging
  • Records test results

What are the benefits of Test Harness?

  • With more effective automation, increases in productivity.
  • Improved software quality.
  • Automates the testing process.
  • Supports debugging.
  • Supports scheduling of tests.
  • Good for complex conditions.
  • Automated test reports generation.
  • Records test results.
  • Enhanced productivity.
  • Enhance software quality.

Contexts where Test Harness is used
1. Test Harness in Test Automation
Test harness in automation testing refers to the software systems and the framework that includes test data, test scripts, test results and compares them and analyze the results.
For example, if you use any testing tool for functional testing, it organizes and manages all the test data, scripts, runs, and results. The test harness for it will be:

  • The testing tool
  • The scripts and
  • The physical location where they are stored
  • The Test sets
  • Test data for the test scripts
  • The test results and the comparative monitoring attributes

2. Test Harness in Integration Testing
Integration testing is testing whether the combined behavior of two or more integrated code is as expected or not.
In an Ideal scenario, Integration testing of two modules is possible when both of them are 100% ready, unit tested and good to go.
But, this everything can’t be perfect at all times. And we might land up in a situation where above conditions are not fulfilled. Hence we use  (stubs and drivers) to overcome this situation. A stub is a proxy piece of code that substitutes the missing piece of code.

What is the difference between Test automation framework and Test Harness?

Test Harness
Test Harness Tools
Though there are no specific tools, it includes tools like test management tools, automation testing tools, etc. Any similar test tool can be an element of the test harness.
Since now you know a lot about test Harness, do keep an account of this when you leverage for your automation testing. Be wise in your selection and usage of test harness; it can bring huge benefits to your test automation.