Difference Between Dynamic and Static Testing: Pros and Cons

Two fundamental approaches, dynamic testing, and static testing, each offer unique advantages and drawbacks in ensuring software quality. Dynamic testing involves the execution of code to uncover defects, while static testing entails the examination of code without execution.

In this blog, we will delve into the nuances of dynamic and static testing, exploring their respective pros and cons.

By gaining insights into these testing methodologies, you can make informed decisions about the most effective strategies to enhance the quality and reliability of your software products.

What Is Static Testing?

Static testing is a method of software testing that doesn’t involve the execution of the code. Instead, it focuses on reviewing and analyzing the code, design, and associated documentation to identify defects and improve the quality of the software. The process of static testing typically involves the following steps:

  1. Planning: The first step in static testing is to plan the review process. This includes identifying the scope of the review, selecting the reviewers, and establishing review criteria.
  2. Review Preparation: This step involves gathering the artifacts to be reviewed, such as source code, requirements, design documents, and test plans.
  3. Review Meeting: If applicable, a review meeting may be conducted to discuss the findings of the review and make decisions regarding the identified issues.
  4. Review Execution: During this phase, the reviewers examine the artifacts to identify defects, inconsistencies, and areas for improvement. This can be done using various techniques, such as walkthroughs, inspections, or peer reviews.
  5. Defect Reporting: Any defects or issues identified during the review process are documented and reported for further analysis and resolution.
  6. Rework: Once the issues are identified, the necessary rework is performed to address the identified defects and improve the quality of the software.
  7. Follow-up: After the review and rework, follow-up activities ensure that the identified issues have been appropriately addressed and that the necessary improvements have been made.

Process of static testing

 Static testing techniques:

  • Informal reviews: Here, no formal review method is applied. The team of reviewers just checks the documents and gives comments. The purpose is to maintain the quality from the initial stage. It is non-documented in nature
  • Formal Reviews: It is well structured and documented and follows six main steps: Planning, kick-off, preparation, review meeting, rework follow-up
  • Technical Reviews: The team of technical experts will review the software for technical specifications. The purpose is to pin out the difference between the required specification and product design and then correct the flaws. It focuses on technical documents such as test strategy, test plan, and requirement specification documents.
  • Walk-through: The author explains the software to the team, and teammates can raise questions if they have any. It is headed by the author, and review comments are noted down.
  • Inspection Process: The meeting is headed by a trained moderator. A formal review is done, a record is maintained for all the errors, and the authors are informed to make corrections to the given feedback.
  • Static code review: Code is reviewed without execution; it is checked for syntax, coding standards, and code optimization. It is also referred to as white box testing.

 Advantages/Pros of Static Testing:

  1. Helps in identifying the flaws in the code
  2. The testing is conducted by trained software developers with good knowledge of coding
  3. It is a fast and easy way to find and fix the errors
  4. With automated tools, it becomes quite fast to scan and review the software
  5. The use of Automated tools provides mitigation recommendations
  6. With static testing, it is possible to find errors at an early stage of the development life cycle, thus, in turn, reducing the cost of fixing them.

Disadvantages/Cons of Static Testing:

  1. It demands a great deal of time when done manually
  2. Automated tools work with few programming languages
  3. Automated tools may provide false positives and false negatives
  4. Automated tools only scan the code
  5. Automated tools cannot pinpoint weak points that may create troubles in run-time

What Is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing is a crucial phase in the software testing process, involving the execution of the code to validate its behavior and performance. This process is essential for identifying defects and ensuring the overall quality and reliability of the software. The dynamic testing process typically involves the following key steps:

  1. Test Planning: The dynamic testing process begins with comprehensive test planning, where test objectives, scope, and test scenarios are defined. This phase also involves the creation of test cases based on requirements and specifications.
  2. Test Execution: In this phase, the prepared test cases are executed against the software under test. The actual behavior and performance of the software are observed, and the outcomes are compared against the expected results.
  3. Defect Reporting: Any discrepancies between the expected and actual outcomes are documented as defects or issues. These are then reported to the development team for further analysis and resolution.
  4. Regression Testing: After fixing the reported defects, regression testing is conducted to ensure that the changes made do not adversely impact the existing functionalities of the software.
  5. Test Result Analysis: The test results are thoroughly analyzed to assess the software’s performance, identify any remaining defects, and make decisions about the software’s readiness for release.
  6. Reporting and Documentation: A comprehensive report is generated, documenting the test results, the identified defects, and any recommendations for improvement. This documentation serves as a reference for future testing activities and for tracking the software’s quality over time.

create a diagram for dynamic testing process

 Advantages/Pros of Dynamic Code Analysis

  1. Dynamic coding helps identify weak areas in a run-time environment
  2. Dynamic testing supports the analysis of applications even if the tester does not have the actual code.
  3. It identifies weak areas that are hard to find with static code analysis
  4. It allows validation of static code analysis findings
  5. It can be applied to any application

Dynamic code analysis limitations/Cons:

  1. Automated tools may give a false security that everything is checked
  2. Automated tools can generate false positives and false negatives
  3. It is not easy to find a trained professional for dynamic testing
  4. It is difficult to trace the vulnerability in the code, and it takes longer to fix the problem. Thus, it becomes costly to fix the errors

What Is The Difference Between Static and Dynamic Application Testing?

Criteria Static Application Testing Dynamic Application Testing
Timing of Testing Conducted during the development phase without execution. Conducted during the execution phase of the application.
Scope of Testing Focuses on examining the code, design, and requirements. Involves evaluating the application’s runtime behavior.
Automation Possibility Often manual, but it can be automated using static analysis tools. Primarily automated through testing tools and frameworks.
Identification of Defects Detects issues through code analysis without executing the program. Identifies defects by actively running the application.
Examples of Techniques Used Code reviews, inspections, and walkthroughs. Unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and others.
Timing of Issue Discovery Issues are identified before the code is executed. Problems are discovered while the application is running.
Focus Area Emphasizes code and design flaws. Concentrates on finding functional and performance issues.
Applicability Best suited for early development stages. Crucial for uncovering issues in a real-world operating environment.
Risk Mitigation Helps in addressing potential issues before runtime. Identifies problems that may occur during actual usage.
Resource Utilization Less resource-intensive during execution. More resource-intensive due to dynamic testing requirements.
Feedback to Developers Provides feedback on code quality and design early in the process. Offers insights into how the application performs in real scenarios.


Both dynamic and static testing play pivotal roles in ensuring software quality. Dynamic testing excels in uncovering runtime defects and validating the functional aspects of the software, while static testing is adept at identifying issues early in the development process.

Each approach has its own set of pros and cons, and the most effective testing strategy often involves a combination of both methods.

By leveraging the strengths of dynamic and static testing while mitigating their respective limitations, organizations can achieve a comprehensive and robust approach to software quality assurance, ultimately leading to higher customer satisfaction and improved competitiveness in the market.

Role Of Software Testing In Software Development

Imagine building a magnificent castle, brick by brick, only to discover cracks upon completion. That’s the danger of neglecting software testing, a crucial phase often overshadowed by the glamorous development world. But just like a meticulous architect, the software tester scouts for flaws, ensuring every line of code stands strong. This isn’t just about identifying bugs; it’s about crafting experiences that delight users, boost performance, and secure your digital fortress. So, let’s shed light on the unsung heroes of software development—the testers—and explore their vital role in crafting software that truly shines.


Testing is an infinite process of comparing the invisible to the ambiguous in order to avoid the unthinkable happening to the anonymous.” –James Bach

Read Also:  An Overview on Types of Software Testing

The Role of Software Testing in the Software Development Process

Software testing is a bedrock in the software development life cycle process; it plays a crucial role in ensuring that an end product has no bugs and remains of high quality. This is a complete process that aims not just to find and fix defects but also involves considering the software’s usability from an end-user’s viewpoint.

Bug Prevention and Quality Enhancement

Software testing is essentially a mechanism for averting the consequences of overlooked functionalities. Finding out missing features or coding mistakes while also saving efforts of starting the difficult task again from the first requirement analysis. This preventive measure is crucial in preventing potential disasters that may have arisen due to gathering the wrong requirements or errors in coding styles, saving time and resources.

Usability Evaluation

Software testing is more than just finding bugs; it carefully tests how easy usability would be from a user’s point of view. This means that the final product should be what users expect, with comfort and simplicity of interaction being highlighted. By considering these usability aspects during testing, developers can achieve the best match between software and user needs and preferences.

 Verification of Software

Verification and validation are a significant part of software testing as they involve scrutinizing every aspect documented in the Software Requirements Specifications (SRS) document. This strict analysis also includes the performance of software in unforeseen situations, such as incorrect input data or changes to environmental conditions. Through these scenarios, testing gives confidence that the system is capable of managing such variations well enough to correct an error before it occurs.

Accelerating Development

Software testing plays an important role as an accelerant of development. Testers identify bugs and describe scenarios that lead to bug reproduction, providing developers with insights for efficient problem resolution. Parallel work by testers and developers makes it possible to develop depth in the manner in which design is understood from an implementing point of view. This also speeds up the development process because the chances of bugs are reduced.

app testing

Software Testing Goals

As a dynamic and integral part of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), software testing works according to a multi-dimensional strategy that has purposes that can be divided into immediate goals, long-term goals, and post-implementation goals. This holistic approach intends to guarantee software quality, user satisfaction, and efficient risk management at all stages of development.

 Immediate Goals

 1. Bug Discovery

This is the immediate objective of software testing, which lies at its core. It aims to reveal and rectify mistakes in any phase of the software development process. The higher success in software testing is strongly related to the early detection of a number of problems, where developers could fix all flaws relatively quickly. This first phase establishes the basis for a solid and dependable software product.

2. Bug Prevention

Bug prevention is the immediate action based on bug discovery. This is not merely about correction; it signifies a learning process within the software development team. Analysis and insights from identified issues contribute to common knowledge, thus preventing identical bugs in subsequent phases or future projects. Bug prevention transforms into a preventive activity, lowering the probability of bug recurrence.

Long-Term Goals

1. Quality Enhancement

Quality is one of the main long-term goals of the software product. It includes the correctness, completeness, integrity, efficiency and consistency of the software product. The process of testing becomes instrumental in ensuring a superior-quality product. Each feature related to quality needs detailed processing. Software testing plays a crucial role in reaching these standards. This results in a completely functional software product that can even surpass user expectations.

2. Customer Satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is the ultimate measure of success from the user’s point of view. Thorough and detailed testing becomes essential to ensuring that a software product is not only satisfactory but also exceeds customers’ expectations. User needs must be perfectly fitted into the user experience, user interface, and overall functionality. Therefore, software testing is a vital component of constructing and sustaining favorable user connections.

 3. Reliability

Reliability is about building confidence among users that the software will not fail. This continuous goal is to win the trust of customers by providing quality products all along. Reliability is not only about whether something works; it includes the predictable and stable nature of the software in many diverse usage situations. A stable software product contributes to long-lasting user relationships.

4. Risk Management

Recognizing the uncertainty associated with organizational events, risk management becomes an essential aspect of avoiding potential losses and negative consequences. Successful testing helps reduce the odds of product failure and improves risk management across various situations. A proactive method of identifying and mitigating possible risks throughout testing increases the overall resilience of the software product.

Post-Implemented Goals

1. Reduce Maintenance Cost

Tracking errors after release is more difficult and costly. An appropriate and comprehensive testing process becomes crucial to minimize the chances of post-release failures. The testing process also has serious financial problems after release; therefore, the tests must be performed literally from scratch, and everything should work correctly.

2. Improved Software Testing Process

Post-implementation goals specify the polishing of testing processes for subsequent projects. Bug history and post-implementation results can be assessed to identify any shortcomings in the current testing procedure. This allows for more comprehensive testing of future software initiatives. Lessons that are learned from previous projects become priceless in designing a standby testing approach that is not only profitable but also flexible enough to adapt to resulting changes within the software development horizon.

Software testing has several strategic goals that go beyond just detecting bugs and are instead oriented toward long-term quality improvement. A holistic testing approach not only prevents you from falling into immediate pre-assignment of money but also contributes to the improvement of software development practices, which eventually leads to the delivery of high-quality, reliable, and people-oriented products.

Seven Principles of Software Testing

In the complex world of software testing, there are seven guiding principles. These principles take us into the subtleties of testing, reaffirming our appreciation for context-dependency, highlighting the value of early testing, and reinforcing that there is no process to guarantee perfection, but rather it signals defect. Let us discover these principles and understand their importance in the world of software development.

1. Context-Dependency

It should be noted that testing is not one size fits all; it is deeply contextual. Testing activities are very context-specific and depend largely on the nature of the software under consideration. For instance, when reviewing an e-commerce website’s database reporting, testers use various strategies to explore it. No two software products are identical, and this calls for a bespoke testing strategy that reflects the special features of each product.

2. Early Testing

Understanding testing as a lifelong endeavor rather than a separate stage, early testing becomes one of the key principles in agile development. This approach entails testing requirements before the coding phase so that testers can identify problems early and save time as well as money. By testing early in the software’s life cycle, potential errors are reduced, facilitating a more efficient and cost-effective approach to programming.

 3. Defect Presence

Testing acts as the mechanism that emphasizes that defects are present rather than proves their complete absence. Testing unquestionably brings the defect down considerably, but it does not proclaim a faultless, error-free system. Instead, it creates confidence in the viability of software, ensuring users that it has been properly reviewed and therefore deployed into production with higher levels of assurance.

4. Exhaustive Testing:

It also recognizes the fact that exhaustive testing is impossible due to time and financial constraints. The ideal scenario is testing as many applications as possible, but practical considerations call for making priorities. To address this limitation, skillful risk assessment and test planning become essential to ensuring a pragmatic as well as effective testing approach amid resource constraints.


5. Defect Clustering:


Defect clustering is an occurrence in many complex systems. By using the Pareto principle, the 80-20 rule, testers can concentrate on the critical 20% of codes leading to an advantage of nearly 80% inconsistencies. This is especially the case in big systems or those relying on components from a third party. Defect clusters will be identified and improved upon when advancing systems with new functions.

6. Fallacy of Absence of Error:

Contrary to the stereotypical misconception of the total absence of errors, this principle focuses on the fact that there is value in designing systems with nothing going wrong only if they meet users’ needs. The point is to understand and test software in a way that meets users’ expectations. The collaborative testing with end-users ensures that the software’s usability is what they need.

7. Pesticide Paradox:

Using a comparison from the realm of plants and insecticides, the so-called pesticide paradox indicates that their tests become less productive repeatedly. On the one hand, like pests developing immunity, testers need to diversify testing practices to reveal new problems and errors. Continuous diversity in the methods of testing avoids stagnancy and ensures that the changing complexities of software are appropriately identified.

These seven principles underlie a strong software testing philosophy that recognizes the unpredictability and changing nature of developing an application. Embracing these principles lends testing practices the transformation to a strategic and adaptive framework that supports providing resilient, user-centric, high-quality software products.


To conclude, software testing has a multifaceted role that goes beyond just error detection; it becomes strategic in the strengthening of the developmental process. Testing becomes the foundation for delivering reliable, user-oriented software products through bug prevention, usability evaluation, software verification, and collaboration facilitation. The dynamic nature of software development makes it not just a necessity but also an essential driver for achieving success, a reality that can be achieved only by embracing a meticulous and proactive testing approach.

Recommended Read:  Popular Software Testing Misconceptions

In today’s competitive world, it is essential for every business to do exceptionally well to be successful. In such cases, software testing can be of great help. Indirectly, testing increases the standard of the organization.

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are a few frequently asked questions related to the role of software testing in software development.

  1. Why is software testing considered necessary in the process of building a software product?

Software testing is an essential process for identifying and correcting bugs so that the final product’s quality will be high. It is critical in preventing the need to begin development all over again and helps understand how usable software can be for end users.

  1. How does software testing fasten the development process?

Software testing enables early identification of bugs, which allows developers to understand and eliminate problems quickly. Developers work together with testers, which simplifies the process of development since there is a significantly lower chance of finding bugs and both teams can act simultaneously.

  1. Does software testing have any effect on the quality and usability of a final product?

Software testing improves the final product’s performance because it validates and verifies all details documented within the SRS document. It also assesses usability from an end–user point of view to make sure that the software meets users’ expectations.


What Is Backend Testing? A Detailed Guide

What is the Backend Testing?

Backend testing ensures the smooth functioning of your application on the server side and guarantees the quality of the database.

When we input data on the front end, it gets stored in the backend using databases such as MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, etc.

Backend testing verifies that the data we input is correctly stored and retrieved from the database, ensuring its proper and timely management.

Backend testing diagrammatical representation.

Types of backend testing

#1) Structural Testing:

  • Think of it as checking the backbone of the system. Structural testing looks at things behind the scenes, like tables, keys, columns, and other technical stuff that users don’t directly interact with.

#2) Functional Testing:

  • This is about making sure that when you ask the system to do something, like finding the price of a product on an online store, it connects correctly with the information in the background and gives you the right answer.

#3) Non-Functional Testing:

  • Non-functional testing is like testing how well the system performs under pressure. It’s about making sure the database can handle unexpected loads without slowing down. This includes checking for security to ensure your information is safe and sound. It’s like ensuring the system can run a marathon without tripping.

 Tools categories:

  1. Postman: The industry-standard for API testing, offering a user-friendly interface, powerful scripting, and excellent collaboration features.
  2. Selenium: Open-source automation framework for web app testing that supports multiple browsers and languages and is ideal for complex backend interactions.
  3. JMeter: Robust performance testing tool for analyzing load, stress, and functional behavior under high user traffic.
  4. SoapUI: Specialized tool for testing SOAP and REST APIs, offering efficient test case creation, execution, and reporting.
  5. Katalon Studio: All-in-one test automation platform that supports web, API, mobile, and desktop testing with a user-friendly interface and scripting capabilities.
  6. Appium: Open-source framework for mobile app testing, extending Selenium’s capabilities to native and hybrid applications.
  7. Cypress: Powerful JavaScript-based test automation framework for web apps, emphasizing developer friendliness and easy integration with CI/CD pipelines.
  8. Puppeteer: Node.js library for controlling Chrome or Chromium headless browsers, ideal for automated browser testing and scraping.
  9. RestAssured: Java library for streamlined API testing, providing concise syntax and integration with JUnit and RESTful services.
  10. Gatling: Open-source performance testing tool with a powerful Scala-based core, offering high accuracy and ease of customization.

Importance of Backend Testing

  • Guarantees data integrity and security: By verifying data storage, retrieval, and manipulation, backend testing safeguards sensitive information from corruption and unauthorized access.
  • Optimizes performance and scalability: Testing ensures efficient resource utilization, preventing crashes and sluggishness even under peak load, crucial for reliable user experiences.
  • Bolsters application stability and reliability: Proactive identification and mitigation of server-side vulnerabilities and logic errors minimizes downtime and unexpected outages, fostering user trust and confidence.
  • Reduces development costs and accelerates time-to-market: Early detection and resolution of backend issues prevents costly downstream fixes and delays, significantly improving project efficiency.

Backend testing test cases

Grey Box Testing Approach:

    • Utilize a grey box testing approach, assessing both the functional and internal workings of the backend.

Data Mapping Sheet:

    • Implement a data mapping sheet to streamline database testing, ensuring efficient verification of data storage and retrieval.

Column Value Verification:

    • Verify the values in each column, ensuring accuracy and consistency.

Operation Log Addition:

    • Test the addition of operation logs, confirming proper recording of backend activities.

Numeric Field Assessment:

    • Evaluate numeric fields with both negative values, assessing responses for both acceptance and non-acceptance.

Database Commitment Check:

    • Confirm that data is appropriately committed to the database after any operations.

Index Creation and Testing:

  • Create and test table indexes to ensure optimal database performance.

Functionality of Buttons:

    • Validate that all functionalities of buttons and drop-downs are accurately saved in the database.

Database Design and Length:

    • Assess databases for correct design and length, aligning with specified requirements.

Stored Procedure Validation:

    • Test stored procedures with relevant data to ensure correct execution and outcomes.

Null Values in Primary Key:

    • Check whether null values are appropriately handled in primary key columns.

Table Constraints Verification:

    • Verify that table constraints are functioning as intended, maintaining data integrity.

Pros of Backend Testing

  • Helps you test databases, servers, and API.
  • It detects bugs at an early stage, thus reducing the cost of fixing them.
  •  Help you test your application more comprehensively, providing you complete control over the test coverage.
  • Evade deadlock and data loss issues.
  • Enhances the system’s functional constancy and sturdiness.
  • Enhances data quality.

Cons of Backend Testing

  • To conduct manual backend testing, you are required to have deep database knowledge.
  •  It can add to your organizational cost.

Backend Testing Validation Mechanism:

Backend Testing includes validating Keys and Indexes, Sequence testing, data integrity testing, Stored procedures testing, Database server validations, Functions testing, Performance check, Database tables, Triggers, etc.

Skills Required For Backend Testing:

Skills Required for Backend Testing:

  1. Database Knowledge:

    • Understanding of database concepts, SQL queries, and database management systems (DBMS).
  2. API Testing:

    • Proficiency in testing APIs, including request and response validation.
  3. Programming Skills:

    • Knowledge of programming languages such as Java, Python, or others used in backend development.
  4. Data Mapping:

    • Ability to create and understand data mapping sheets for effective database testing.
  5. Grey Box Testing:

    • Familiarity with grey box testing methodologies, assessing both functional and internal aspects.
  6. SQL Proficiency:

    • Strong skills in writing and executing SQL queries for data verification and validation.
  7. Test Automation:

    • Experience in test automation tools for backend testing, such as Postman or RestAssured.
  8. Web Services Testing:

    • Understanding of web services and testing methodologies for backend systems.
  9. Backend Architecture:

    • Knowledge of backend architecture and how different components interact.
  10. Scripting Languages:

    • Familiarity with scripting languages for test automation and backend scripting tasks.
  11. Performance Testing:

    • Ability to conduct performance testing to ensure backend scalability and responsiveness.
  12. Security Testing:

  13. Analytical Skills:

    • Strong analytical skills to identify issues and troubleshoot backend functionalities.

Backend Testing Elements:

  1. Database Testing:

    • Assessing the correctness and efficiency of data storage and retrieval.
  2. API Testing:

    • Verifying the functionality and performance of application programming interfaces.
  3. Data Integrity:

    • Ensuring the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data within the backend.
  4. SQL Queries:

    • Crafting and executing SQL queries for data validation and manipulation.
  5. Server-Side Logic:

  6. Performance Testing:

    • Evaluating the scalability, speed, and responsiveness of the backend under various loads.
  7. Security Testing:

    • Identifying and addressing potential vulnerabilities to ensure data security.
  8. Backend Architecture:

    • Understanding and validating the overall structure and components of the backend.
  9. Logging and Auditing:

    • Verifying the proper recording of operation logs and auditing functionalities.
  10. Error Handling:

    • Testing the system’s response and error-handling mechanisms.
  11. Data Migration:

  12. Integration Testing:

    • Ensuring seamless interaction and communication between various backend components.
  13. Concurrency and Transactions:

    • Testing how the system handles concurrent transactions and maintains data consistency.
  14. Caching Mechanisms:

    • Verifying the efficiency and correctness of data caching mechanisms.
  15. Compatibility Testing:

    • Ensuring compatibility with different databases, environments, and configurations.

Backend Database Testing

The database is an important part of your application. Seamless interaction between the GUI and the database is very important for the proper functioning of your application.

Any kind of discrepancy can cause performance bottlenecks and security issues. Hence, backend database testing is the most important. 

How to do Backend Testing?

Here’s a step-by-step guide to backend testing:

1. Planning and Analysis:

  • Gather requirements: Understand the backend’s functionalities and interactions with other components.
  • Identify test scope: Determine what areas to focus on based on business priorities and risk assessment.
  • Choose testing tools: Select appropriate tools aligned with your needs and environment.

2. Test Case Design:

  • Create test cases: Cover diverse scenarios, including positive, negative, boundary value, and error conditions.
  • Cover different testing types: Incorporate functional, integration, security, performance, and API testing.

3. Test Environment Setup:

  • Configure environment: Replicate the production environment or use a staging server as closely as possible.
  • Set up test data: Prepare relevant data sets, ensuring privacy and security compliance.

4. Test Execution:

  • Execute test cases: Run planned tests manually or using automation tools.
  • Log results: Document test outcomes, including any errors, issues, or unexpected behaviors.

5. Defect Reporting and Analysis:

  • Report defects: Clearly document any issues found, providing steps to reproduce and expected vs. actual results.
  • Prioritize fixes: Collaborate with developers to address defects based on severity and impact.

6. Retesting and Regression Testing:

  • Retest fixed defects: Verify that issues have been resolved effectively.
  • Conduct regression testing: Ensure changes haven’t introduced new problems in previously working areas.

7. Test Closure and Reporting:

  • Summarize results: compile test outcomes, metrics, and recommendations in a comprehensive report.
  • Identify areas for improvement: Analyze the findings to enhance testing processes and backend quality.

Additional Tips:

  • Involve stakeholders: Keep developers, testers, and business analysts informed throughout the process.
  • Prioritize automation: Automate repetitive tasks to save time, reduce errors, and enable continuous testing.
  • Integrate with CI/CD: Integrate backend testing into continuous integration and delivery pipelines for efficient feedback loops.
  • Adapt testing strategies: Stay updated with evolving technologies and best practices to ensure effective backend testing.

For example, if we consider a train ticket booking website, it asks users to create their profile and also uses various online payment methods to book train tickets.

These websites use backend testing to ensure the highest level of security and efficient working. The process ensures that profile information like name, address, payment method, etc. is stored in their designated database tables, and no information is missed.

A proper test should be carried out to ensure that the data are timely and correctly retrieved. For all monetary transactions, ACID properties should be properly tested. 

Common practices while performing backend testing

  • Test early; it helps reduce fixing costs considerably
  • Focus on test coverage to test the system thoroughly.
  • Try to keep yourself at bay with issues like deadlock and data loss.
  • Focus on the application’s functional stability and robustness.

How to deal with common mistakes in backend testing:

While performing the process, many testers generally make a few mistakes to reduce the testing cost. Dealing with such issues is very important. Here is how 

  1. Inadequate testing approach

it is not very easy and requires good knowledge of databases. If your team is not very skilled and efficient, they might end up doing only black-box testing, which can lead to inadequate coverage and leave many bugs undetected.

Hence, always rely on an experienced and skilled backend tester who has a good knowledge of databases, can accurately cover the test cases, and can also perform white box testing.

So, your solution is to hire an experienced backend tester.

  1. Depending on the simulated data

To save time and effort, testers often depend on simulated data for testing; this can lead to many bugs being unidentified. Hence, it is always advised to use more realistic data, which can save you a lot of time in finding bugs at a later stage and fixing them.

  1. Randomly picking up automation tools

Companies often pick up any automation tool without realizing the cost it can incur in the future. To save costs, they often pick free tools that might not be suitable for their testing requirements. Such scenarios can lead to unrealized costs in later stages. Hence, it is advisable to make a wise choice about your automation tool.

Focus areas when testing a database in backend testing

While testing a database, apart from checking the connections and the security, here are the other things that must be included in your tests.

  1. Validating the schema: schema mapping is how the objects in the UI are related to the database. They help store and retrieve data values from one function or module to another. It is important to check that each object in the UI is mapped to the correct data in dB.
  2. Database tables: the data in a dB is arranged in tables; it is important to check that the data is stored in the correct tables with the expected key value and is also under access control as per the requirements.
  3. Columns: checking the columns would include checking the data types, the length of data it can take, and even the mapping between primary and foreign keys.
  4. Key and index: Indexing and keys help to retrieve the data faster from a huge database and are especially true for big data or Hadoop, which deals with huge data. In testing, you check the index and keys to ensure you can fetch the required data in less time.
  5. Stored Procedures: Simply put, a stored procedure is a set of SQL queries that can be saved and run in a sequence to achieve the required operation. These stored procedures need to be tested with different combinations of input parameters to confirm the viability of these procedures.
  6. Triggers: Triggers are actions performed on the table when any add, edit, delete or truncate operation is performed on the dB. For testing these triggers, the SQL query in the trigger is executed standalone, and the results are noted down. Next, the trigger is executed as a set, and the results are compared with the standalone results.
  7. Database server validations: The validations at the server level mainly deal with security and access control as per the business needs. Some fields in the dB should be read-only, some should be accessible only for a certain user group, some others may be a one-time edit, and so on. This business logic for a server needs to be tested thoroughly.
  8. Data duplications: As the name suggests, tests need to be performed to ensure there is no data duplication. Duplicate data not only creates confusion during the data update but could also lead to incorrect results and more burden on the dB. It is very important to avoid these duplications.
  9. Data masking: Some data needs to be masked, as these would be related to the personal information of the customers or some other very secure data. It is very important to check that while saving and retrieving these data, they are masked and cannot be accessed by unauthorized personnel at any level. In many cases, even legal action can be taken if data masking is done and the information gets leaked out.

API Backend Testing

In the most simple terms, an API is an interface that offers some sort of service to another application or software. API testing is also a form of backend testing since we do not need a UI to test these, and they are triggered when one or more actions are performed on the UI.

For testing the API, we need to know the endpoints where these APIs hit when called, the expected response code, the number of retries, and the error message returned for an unsuccessful call. All these parameters are tested as part of the API.

Some tools commonly used for API automation and testing are:

  • SoapUI
  • JMeter
  • Postman
  • REST Assured
  1. Poor communication

Communication is an important factor while conducting backend testing. There should be an open and free flow of communication between the team so that testers have a clear picture of what changes and additions are made to the database. Poor communication can lead to testers missing many test cases that could have evolved with the changes in the database, hence leading to inadequate testing.

Challenges in Performing the process

  • Testing scope

Testing the backend involves databases that are often very vast. Getting a clear insight into these databases and gathering requirements to build test cases can be a daunting task, especially when databases are very big.

  • Short test database

When an application is passed on to the testers for testing, the data in the database is generally very small. It is sufficient only to execute the application. Hence, it becomes a challenge for the testers to test the application.

  • Changes in database structure

Changes in databases are very frequent. But it throws a big challenge to the testers testing the application. Supposedly, they have prepared the test cases and are executing them as per their designed test plan and test cases, and in the middle, there is a database change, which can create many challenges for the tester. So with every structural change in the database, the testers must modify their test cases to ensure proper testing. Not only that, they will also have to rework the test data.

  • Running multiple test cases simultaneously

Another big challenge in the process is that you cannot run multiple test cases simultaneously, as it can decrease the performance of your application and can underrate its performance.

  • Complex test plans

It is a complex task to deal with complex databases. Hence, it involves complex test plans. It should be ensured to keep test plans as simple as you can.

  • Good understanding of SQL

The process requires you to have a good understanding of SQL, which can help in proper and accurate testing.

How is backend testing different from front-end testing?

Backend Testing

Front-end Testing

1.       It is performed on the database or servers

1. It is always performed on the application GUI

1.       To test the backend, a tester must have good knowledge of SQL, dB connections, and database fundamentals

2.  To test the front end, the tester needs to know the business and functionality of the application.

2.      There should be sufficient data in the database before the testing can be done

3. It can be performed with the minimum amount of data in the system.

3.      No GUI is required to perform a backend test

4. GUI is mandatory to perform frontend tests.

4.      Types of backend tests are SQL tests, dB tests, API tests, etc

5. Types of frontend testing are functional tests, unit tests, regression tests, smoke tests, etc.

5.      The main aim is to check the integrity of data to see if it is stored correctly, accessible as per need, any loss, etc.

6. The main aim is to verify the functionality of the application as customers would use it.


Through backend testing, you can check the ACID properties, schema, etc. The most astounding feature of back-end testing is that you don’t require the help of a GUI. You can directly inject data into the database with the help of a browser.

Database testing also helps in testing the business logic of an app. If you wish to know more about why your app needs it and how it’s beneficial from a business perspective, you can talk to us.

Website Testing Guide: How to Test a Website?

Overview of Website Testing Blog

  1. What is Website Testing?
  2. Reasons to Test Your Website
  3. Website Testing Checklist
  4. Types of Web Testing
  5. Techniques to reduce your website testing efforts
  6. Website Testing Tips
  7. Website Testing Tools

What is website testing?

The practice of examining and assessing a website or online application to find possible problems, vulnerabilities, and opportunities for improvement is known as website testing, sometimes known as web application testing.

Website testing’s major objective is to make that the site works as intended, performs effectively, and offers a satisfying user experience while ensuring security and dependability.

Functionality Testing: This type of testing verifies that the website’s features, functionality, and user interactions work as expected. It includes testing links, forms, navigation, search functionality, user registration, login/logout, and other interactive elements.

Usability Testing: Usability testing focuses on evaluating the website’s user-friendliness and user experience. It involves assessing the website’s layout, design, navigation, and overall ease of use. Usability testing may include gathering feedback from real users through surveys, interviews, or user testing sessions.

Performance Testing: Performance testing assesses the website’s responsiveness, speed, and scalability under various load conditions. It measures factors such as page load times, server response times, resource utilization, and the website’s ability to handle concurrent user traffic.

Security Testing: Security testing aims to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the website’s security controls. It includes testing for common security flaws such as cross-site scripting (XSS), SQL injection, authentication and authorization issues, session management vulnerabilities, and other security vulnerabilities.

Compatibility Testing: Compatibility testing ensures that the website functions correctly across different web browsers, operating systems, and devices. It involves testing the website’s compatibility with popular browsers (such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer), mobile devices, and screen resolutions.

Accessibility Testing: Accessibility testing assesses the website’s compliance with accessibility standards and guidelines, making it usable for individuals with disabilities. It focuses on factors such as keyboard navigation, screen reader compatibility, color contrast, and alternative text for images.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Testing: XSS testing involves evaluating the website’s vulnerability to cross-site scripting attacks, where malicious code can be injected into the website and executed in a user’s browser. It aims to identify and mitigate XSS vulnerabilities to prevent potential security breaches.

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) Testing: CSRF testing checks for vulnerabilities that could allow malicious entities to execute unauthorized actions on behalf of a user. It involves crafting requests and verifying if the website’s security mechanisms effectively prevent CSRF attacks.

Performance and Load Testing: This type of testing evaluates the website’s performance under heavy loads and stress conditions. It involves simulating high user traffic, concurrent user sessions, and data loads to identify potential bottlenecks, scalability issues, and performance degradation.

Regression Testing: Regression testing ensures that changes or updates made to the website do not introduce new issues or break existing functionality. It involves retesting previously tested features and functionalities to verify their continued proper functioning.

website testing
Reasons to test your website

Testing your website is very important and here are a few reasons to convince you about that:

Identify and fix issues/bugs

Finding and fixing problems is made easier by testing a website’s operation, appearance, or performance.

Early detection of these problems allows you to solve them before they affect user experience or develop into bigger difficulties.

Ensure functionality

Testing makes that all of your website’s features and capabilities operate as intended.

It checks to see whether buttons, links, forms, navigation, and other interactive features work properly. This makes it easier to create a seamless user experience.

Enhance user experience

Testing enables you to evaluate your website’s usability and user-friendliness.

You may enhance the website’s layout, design, navigation, and general usability by getting user comments and insights.

The happiness and engagement of customers are influenced by the user experience.

Enhance performance

Testing aids in gauging and enhancing your website’s performance. You may evaluate things like server response times, page load times, and resource use.

You may improve the speed, responsiveness, and scalability of the website by identifying and eliminating performance bottlenecks.

Ensure cross-browser and device compatibility

Testing makes sure that your website works properly on a variety of computers and mobile devices, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.

This makes it possible to reach a larger audience and offers a uniform user experience regardless of the platform that the user selects.

Improve security

Testing is essential for finding and fixing security flaws in your website.

By doing security testing, you may identify common security issues (such as XSS and SQL injection) and evaluate how well security safeguards are working.

By addressing these vulnerabilities, you may secure against prospective attacks, preserve user data, and prevent unwanted access.

Validate compliance

Testing enables you to confirm that your website complies with all applicable laws, regulations, and accessibility standards.

To do this, you must make sure that laws like the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and accessibility standards like the

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are being followed. Legal and regulatory risks are lessened with the use of compliance testing.

Support for updates and changes:

As you update your website or add new features, testing is essential to make sure that the changes don’t cause any problems or impair current functioning.

Regression testing assists in confirming that after changes, the website still functions as planned.

Improve brand reputation

Users get a dependable and consistent experience from a well-tested website.

It builds credibility and trust with your audience and enhances the reputation of your brand.

On the other hand, a website with a history of problems or poor performance might hurt your brand’s reputation.

Cost and time savings

While spending time and money on testing may seem like an extra effort, in the long run, it may save a lot of money and time.

Early issue detection and repair save money on costly repairs and lessen the possibility of serious difficulties developing after the website is live.

Website Testing Checklist

Before you begin with your website testing, be ready with a checklist so as not to miss any part of it.
For Functional Testing

  • Check whether usable HTML is used or not.
  • Validate different fields like dropdowns, text boxes, checkboxes, radio options, links, Combo box inputs, etc.
  • Verify CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
  • Validate that internal links are appropriately linked to anticipated pages of your websites.
  • Validate that internal links are appropriately linked to anticipated pages of external websites.
  • Ensure the proper functioning of Email links.
  • Validate that there are no broken links generated in your website.
  • Validate that the web forms are consistent and hold the essential input and output controls. Also, validate that the data is properly captured.
  • Validate the database for effective data processing.
  • Cookie testing should not be missed for enhanced security of your users.
  • Check your website for appropriate error messages
  • make sure that the required and optional fields are properly handled.
  • Counter-check the security measures for proper storing of sensitive data.

For Performance Testing

  • Test your website for attributes like Speed, Responsiveness, Stability, Scalability, etc. under various load conditions.

For Web Usability Testing

  • Validate that Site Load-time is reasonable.
  • Inspect font size and spacing between lines is easily readable by the users.
  • Ensure the use of Flash & Add-ons.
  • Validate the correct usage of ALT Tags for all images.
  • In case of internal link breakage, the proper error message should be displayed.
  • Check the correct placement of the website logo.
  • Check tagline.
  • Validate the contact details.
  • Validate the navigation system is easy to understand for the users.
  • Make sure that the navigation labels are clear and concise.
  • Validate the correct usage of buttons and links for easy navigation.
  • Validate that the company logo is linked with the home page. (Not mandatory, but is commonly practiced)
  • Check the proper positioning and ease of usage of the search button
  • Ensure that the heading is clear and descriptive
  • Check the proper use of heading tags like H1, H2, etc.
  • Validate that critical content is displayed in average screen resolution on the first.
  • Make sure that steady usage of font styles and colors has been done across your website.
  • Validate the use of user-friendly and meaningful keywords
  • Validate that the titles are meaningful and self-explanatory

For Compatibility Testing

Validate your website with

  • Browsers and their versions.
  • Operating systems and their versions.
  • Hardware configurations.
  • Network environments.
  • Screen resolutions.

For Web Security Testing

  • Validate your website for password cracking.
  • Test your website for threat exposure.
  • Validate your website for URL management.
  • Validate SQL injection.
  • Validate your website for Cross-Site Scripting (XSS).

Types of Web Testing

Website testing can be broadly divided into various parts:
#1. Functional Testing
Tests the functionality of the website and ensures it works as per the requirement specification.
#2. Browser Compatibility Testing
Your users might be using different browsers and to offer a smooth browsing experience to ensure that you conduct a vivid round of browser compatibility testing. It ensures that your website works fine on various different browsers.
#3. Usability Testing
Your website should be easy to use for the users, it should provide easy navigation, usage, and look and feel to the users.
#4. Accessibility Testing
Accessibility testing can be called as a subset of usability testing, where testing is done whether your website can be easy to use by disabled people. It specifically tests if your website is designed in consideration of people with disability.
#5. Performance Testing
Your website has to bear some load on a day-to-day basis. Considering an average load condition, you should ensure that your website works fine under this load condition. Hence, performance testing of the website is done to test its stability and its responsiveness under a particular load.
#6. Stress and Load Testing
Your website can at times be subjected to undue load conditions and it should be fairly designed to work properly under such heavy load conditions. Hence it is important to conduct stress and load testing to test website stability under heavy load conditions.
#7. Site Monitoring
Regular downtimes can lessen the trust of your users on your website. Hence it is important to observe your website to test for downtime automatically.
#8. Conversion Rate Testing
Dealing with the testing of how to convert more visitors into customers, this has become the favorite website testing of the present-day world.
#9. Security Testing
Websites are prone to hacking; hence testing their security is at most important.
#10. Spelling and Grammar Checking
Spelling and grammar mistakes can have a bad impression for your brand, so thoroughly check your content for spelling and grammar errors.

Techniques to reduce your website testing efforts

Some of the techniques that you can imply to reduce your testing efforts are:

  • Automated testing

With automated testing, you can save a lot of time manually executing every test case and can further spend that time innovating better ways to enhance your testing efforts.

  • Mobile emulators and simulators

Since there are huge chances of people browsing your website through mobile devices, you need to test your website in various mobile devices and operating systems.
This can be a very tiring task to test your website on hundreds of available mobile devices, operating systems, and combustion of both. And hence an easy way out is to use mobile emulators and simulators.

  • Live web testing

Live web testing allows you to debug a website on various browsers and operating system combinations instantly available in the Cloud.

Website Testing Tips

Here are some website testing tips to get better results:

1) Integrate Exploratory Testing with Conventional Testing Techniques

Exploratory testing has a few shortcomings. You can simply overcome these by assimilating exploratory testing with other testing methods.

It helps in producing more reliable test results, and significantly reducing the time for testing.

2) Don’t miss on Sanity testing – it’s important!

Sanity testing can immensely help you in validating the functions and features of your website in a reduced time.

3) Validate All Third-Party Applications, Plug-ins, and Extensions

Test if the extensions and plug-ins are completely compatible with the web application and also detect the defects in them. Remember they can adversely affect the performance of your website.

4) Automate the chatbox testing

Chatbot testing has to be done in different testing environments and also the coordination among the bots needs to be rigorously tested.

This can be a painstaking task and hence it is better to automate chatbox testing efforts.

 5) Keep URL String Unalterable

Hackers have the ability to alter URL strings to access sensitive information or to redirect your site to some malicious link.

Try to keep your URL string unalterable to avoid any chances of malicious activities.

6) Test with a hacker’s IQ

Try testing your website with the intent of a hacker and try finding to hack a website with minimal resistance for best results.

7) Be a Part of the Development Team

With the increasing adaptation of Agile methodology and DevOps learn to work in coordination with developers, business analysts, and customers.

Website Testing Tools

Here are a few website testing tools that can decrease your testing efforts considerably.

  1. SoapUI
  2. TestingWhiz
  3. SOAPSonar
  4. SOAtest
  5. TestMaker
  6. Postman
  7. vRest
  8. HttpMaster
  9. Runscope
  10. Rapise
  11. WebInject
  12. Storm


Websites are different from desktop software, so treat them differently and follow website testing methodology to get the best testing results.  They are seamlessly integrating and interacting with other software around the globe. So testing is important as lot is at stake.

How to Outsource Website Testing Services?

Before we go into why website testing is being outsourced, let’s look at what this entails. Outsourcing is an agreement made by one company with another for website testing.

There are some best practices expected by clients who outsource website testing.

1. Clarify the needs:

Outsourcing website testing needs a clear work scope. If your customer does not offer them, you must define and explain the needs. Don’t put it off; make it simple for the client to work with you. Both parties should evaluate the scope on a regular basis to ensure that there are no disputes or misunderstandings.

2. Create a sense of collaboration with the customer:

Make yourself a member of the client’s team, not a remote add-on. Know who the players are, what their habits are, and when they will evolve so that you can fit into their processes. Harmonize with the development team, follow their rhythm, and accept their vision.

3. Make use of varied time zones:

Assume the developers are in the United States and the testers are in Europe. After coders in America finish their job for the day, they may send their build to testers in Europe, whose day begins hours later. Use the time overlap to connect while taking advantage of your clients’ leisure to get a lot of work done and show them the results the next day.

4. Enhance communication:

To eliminate knowledge asymmetry, timely communication is necessary when outsourcing website testing. Many technologies, such as instant chat (Google Talk, MSN), email or SMS, shared documents and dashboards, problem tracking systems, configuration management tools, screen sharing, and so on, can be employed. Before the project begins, both parties should agree on the communication routes.

Read Also: 7 Important Tips for Successful QA Outsourcing

5. Be flexible and adaptable:

Each company has its own workflow and methods. As an outsourced website testing services firm, we adhere to our customers’ QA protocols, which necessitates the use of adaptable teams. When working with a new client, the outsourced QA testing team should be able to swiftly learn new workflows and the testing process, as well as adapt to a new work style.

6. Recognize your customer’s cost structure:

Your client is outsourcing website QA to you because you can deliver a service at a lower cost than they could if they performed it themselves. Perhaps you are giving skills that would be too expensive to acquire and bring in-house. Understanding the specific scenario for each of your clients can help you determine whether you are pricing yourself out of a project or whether there is a broader area of services for you to supply.

7. Emphasis the need of effective written language skills:

English is the worldwide business language. English is frequently the second language of both the customer and the outsourced team. This can be difficult when conversing often via email. One of the most critical criteria for project success is smooth and effective communication between the customer and the outsourced QA team in charge of testing. Make certain that your communication is succinct, thorough, and correct.

8. Be the authoritative figure:

Be the expert in the area where the client wants you to be an expert – quality assurance and testing. Be or become a domain specialist, such as one in financial software. Highlight your expertise and ability to apply it to completely evaluate your client’s goods. Finally, become a specialist in the client’s unique application.

Read Also: 10 Reasons Why Outsourcing App Testing is the Best

9. Make yourself visible:

Lack of visibility with key executives in your customer’s organisation may be terrible since you want your worth to be recognised throughout the client. It may be challenging to gain higher awareness as the single member of the outsourced QA testing team. First, identify important managers and provide them with regular updates, statuses, and outcomes (particularly if they are positive). Visit the client and make a point of seeing and speaking with those important managers, even if just for a few minutes.

10. Establish communication priorities:

Although most of the items on this list imply it, it cannot be overstated. Communicate with a goal in mind. Don’t just bombard your customer with information. Selective communication is required. Ensure that the appropriate information and analysis are sent to the appropriate individual. A developer may value a great deal of technical detail, but the development manager is interested in timeline information.

app testing

Why outsource website testing is necessary?
Enhancing existing projects

If you want to test your own website, you may have no prior expertise or experience. As a result, hiring a website testing firm is the ideal option. In general, the most experienced of these organisations have gone through trial and error during their career in the sector and are continually analysing risks and errors and correcting them, which works in your favour when you hire them. They are capable of delivering the efficient outcomes you want.

Global economic disparities

Website testing costs far less in poor nations than in developed countries. You may employ a whole testing team from India or China at the same cost as hiring one or two testers in the United States or Germany. As a result, outsourcing website testing will help you save money.

Find the best candidate for the position

Your location, business size, and other factors all have an impact on the website testing constraints you encounter during a project. For example, you could wish to include one of the most recent technologies into your project. However, you may not be able to find somebody with relevant experience to assist you. Or perhaps you started a project, but were unable to complete it due to a lack of resources or experience. Outsourcing is useful in these instances. You may locate someone suited for the job from all around the world with the skills to complete your testing needs on time and within budget.

Task prioritisation

Prioritising jobs is an excellent approach to increase work productivity while also managing time so that all essential project activities are finished on time. Even if your team handles the majority of them, things like app development, marketing and other management activities may still require people. Outsourcing is the ideal answer in these cases.


Outsourcing the testing of any product is always a good alternative. It helps us concentrate on our core work and save time. Testing outsourcing allows us to prioritise tasks and achieve excellent milestones. Outsourcing is the best solution for testing in all types of development.

Web Application Testing Manually (Step by Step A Complete Guide)

Web applications are a subset of application software, and application software is nothing more than the applications that consumers utilise. Every day, we utilise web applications, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Amazon, and online portals; everything falls under the category of web applications. Software testing is a component of the software development process and an activity that detects and identifies faults in software. The primary goal of testing is to deliver a quality product to the client.

Manual testing is the process of comparing the behaviour of created code (software, module, API, feature, etc.) to the intended behaviour (requirements). In Manual Web Application Testing, when it comes to web apps, there is a lot that goes into creating world-class user experiences. Naturally, it all starts with extensive manual software testing. As a result, manual testing is an essential component of any comprehensive software testing process.

What exactly is manual testing?

Manual testing of web applications is the process of executing test cases by hand. This type of testing occurs in the absence of automated technologies. In reality, because Web Application Manual Evaluating necessitates manually testing a software product, the end product is precise. Testers check for faults that may interfere with the app’s usability. Manual testing is used by businesses to validate their products. Similarly, businesses attempt to analyse and qualify a web app product based on factors, such as correctness, completeness, usability, efficiency, and others.

Manual software testing is the first step in creating pleasing user interfaces. Manual testing is used by businesses as a fundamental strategy to producing high-quality software products. Businesses seldom believe in complete automation. This is due to the fact that comprehensive automation comes with a number of financial and time restrictions. Manual testing, albeit labour demanding, is a vital requirement for determining automation viability. Manual testers help firms uncover flaws and gain a realistic understanding of how customers will interact with their online apps.

Read Also: Manual or Automated Testing: Which to Use?

Why is manual testing essential in the development of web applications?

Manual software testing is the secret sauce in the majority of web app development projects’ testing phases. When it comes to testing web apps for aesthetic concerns, automated testing technologies are ineffective. Human sensitivity is the best judge of things, like gestures, image colour, letter size, and so on. As a result, automated testing makes it harder to validate a web app’s User Experience and User Interface.

  • Efficiency

Manual testing successfully overcomes the constraints introduced by automated testing. As a result, app development teams focused on user experience and GUIs that are regularly evolving rely significantly on manual testing to ensure success.

When teams are creating apps from the ground up in the early phases of web app development, the majority of features are in active deployment. It is preferable to begin with manual testing during this time. Because, when it comes to manual testing, one key benefit is its seamless execution for bespoke modules based on business needs. Manual testing can be accomplished with ease and perfection without the need of any fancy code or sophisticated applications.

  • Cost effective

When compared to expensive test automation technologies, the cost of manual testing is significantly less. Integrating the high-level expertise required to run automation tools is an added cost. Manual testing abilities are easy to learn and cost less money. Furthermore, manual testing is easier to implement.

Read Also: How to Improve Your Manual Testing Skills ?

In the event of unanticipated changes in the web app development process, manual testing is a readily flexible and well-suited solution. It’s also a good option for developers who need to test the web app after making modifications. Human observation and intuition can be used during manual testing. It contributes significantly to the overall consumer experience.

Furthermore, manual exploratory testing assists firms in proactively searching for edge situations and unanticipated concerns. Manual testers will occasionally hand-code tests. Hand-coded test suites might take many weeks to complete. In such circumstances, manual testing gives organisations with immediate benefits.

Manual Web Application Testing Techniques

The following are the many forms of Manual Testing for Web Applications that firms must perform:

1. Black Box or Functional Testing:-

The internal details of a programme are not accessible during functional testing, and the software is viewed as a black box. A test engineer is solely concerned with the component of the programme that is visible outside of the programme, namely input and output.

A test engineer adds input to a programme, examines the program’s externally visible output, and decides whether or not the programme output is the intended output. The program’s requirements definition and the attributes of the program’s input and output domains are used to pick inputs. A test engineer is only concerned with the functionality and features specified in the programme specification.

2. White Box or Structural Testing:-

In structural testing, the attention is mostly on source code, with a particular emphasis on control flow and data flow. The flow of control from one command to another is referred to as control flow.

Control can be passed from one instruction to another in a variety of methods, including one instruction after another, function calls, message passing, and interrupts. Conditional statements disrupt the program’s typical, sequential flow of control. The transmission of values from one variable or constant to another variable is referred to as data flow. The data flow component of a programme is determined by the definitions and usage of variables.

Read Also: Top 10 Manual Testing Tools

3. Unit Testing:-

Unit testing is the isolation of programme units. However, there is no agreement on what constitutes a unit. Functions, processes and techniques are examples of frequently known units. A class in an object-oriented programming language can also be thought of as a programme unit.

A programme unit is a piece of code, such as a function or class method, that is executed from outside the unit and can invoke additional programme units. Furthermore, it is believed that a programme unit will implement a well-defined function that will provide a certain amount of abstraction to the implementation of higher level functions. A programme unit’s function may or may not be directly related to a system-level function.

4. System Testing:-

System testing is the process of validating the entire and fully integrated software product. A system test is used to examine the end-to-end system requirements. Typically, software is just one component of a broader computer-based system.

Finally, the programme is linked to other software/hardware systems. System testing is described as a sequence of tests designed only to exercise the entire computer-based system.

5. Integration Testing:-

Integration testing is a sort of testing in which software modules are conceptually integrated and evaluated as a group. A typical software project comprises of several software modules written by various programmers. The goal of this level of testing is to identify flaws in the interaction of various software components when they are integrated.

Integration testing focuses on data transfer between these modules. As a result, it is also known as ‘I & T’ (Integration and Testing), ‘String Testing,’ and, on occasion, ‘Thread Testing.’ Software developers and integration test engineers collaborate to do integration testing. The goal of integration testing is to build a relatively stable system capable of withstanding the rigours of system-level testing.

Read Also: How to Do Security Testing For Web Applications

6. Acceptance Testing:-

Acceptance testing is a formal test that is performed to assess whether a system meets its acceptance criteria—the requirements that the system must meet in order to be approved by the client. It assists the client in deciding whether to accept or reject the system. If the acceptance test cases fail, the client normally has the right to refuse delivery of the product.

7. Regression Testing:-

Regression testing is another type of testing that occurs throughout a system’s life cycle. When a system component is changed, regression testing is undertaken. The main goal of regression testing is to ensure that the update did not create any new flaws in the area that was not modified.

To be more specific, regression testing is not a separate level of testing. New tests are not developed during regression testing. Instead, tests are chosen, prioritised, and performed from an existing pool of test cases to guarantee that nothing breaks in the new software version. Regression testing is a costly procedure that consumes the majority of testing effort in the industry.

8. Smoke Testing:-

Smoke testing enters the picture when the developer team delivers build software. The goal of smoke testing is to discover whether or not the built programme is testable. It is done during the “software development” process. This is often referred to as “Day 0.” It is a time-saving method.

It minimises testing time since testing is done only when the application’s essential functionalities are not working or when key issues are not addressed. The workflow of the application’s main and key functions is the focus of Smoke testing.

9. Performance Testing:-

It is the most crucial aspect of non-functional testing. This testing generally describes how rapidly the server replies to the user’s request. While performing performance testing on the application, we will focus on numerous elements, such as response time, load, and application stability. We will do performance testing after the programme has been stabilised and transferred to production, and it may be used by numerous users concurrently, which may cause some performance concerns. The tester does one round of performance testing to avoid these performance concerns.

10. Load Testing:-

Load testing is an essential part of performance testing that is used to evaluate the software’s performance by applying some load. We also learn about its technique, why we need to perform load testing, the purpose of load testing, examples, different load testing strategies, and the benefits and drawbacks.

In non-functional software testing, load testing is an integral component of performance testing. Load testing is the process of assessing the performance of an application by introducing a load that is less than or equal to the desired load.

11. Stress Testing:-

Stress testing is an important aspect of performance testing and is used to evaluate an application’s behaviour by delivering a load larger than the anticipated load. We also learn about its procedure, why we need to undertake stress testing, goal of stress testing, examples, various elements of stress testing, and the benefits and drawbacks.

12. Endurance Testing:-

Endurance testing involves assessing the system’s performance under various load situations over an extended period of time. Endurance testing is an important component of non-functional testing. It is also known as Soak testing and Lifespan testing in general. Endurance testing is performed at the end of the performance run cycle. We conducted endurance testing to measure the reaction of a tested component under probable duplicated scenarios for a particular load and time. Simply said, the term “endurance” is used to indicate something’s ability to last, which is also known as durability, ability, or endurance.

13. Exploratory Testing:-

If no need exists, we do one round of exploratory testing. So, for this, we will first explore the application in all conceivable ways, learning the application’s flow, producing a test document, and then testing the application; this method is known as exploratory testing. If we want to understand an application, we will first perform unit or component testing.

For example, if the application has a login page with many elements, we will understand each part and perform component testing, but we are actually doing exploratory testing because we are exploring the application.


Manual testing has been determined to be the mother of all sorts of testing since it necessitates extensive knowledge from the inside out, and all other types of testing stem from manual testing. Much of the testing literature is riddled with jargon, which is understandable given that testing technology has evolved over decades and through the efforts of dozens of writers.

Testing is critical to obtaining and assessing the quality of a software product. On the one hand, we increase product quality by repeating a test-find-defect-fix cycle during development. When we do system-level testing before releasing a product, we analyse how good our system is.

A Bird’s-eye view into Server Testing


When it comes to server testing, testing will be restricted to client/server I/O, network stress, CPU consumption, and memory consumption. But the significance of the process in SDLC is huge and cardinal.


The process helps servers to go down, record lock, Input-Output errors. It can test addresses system performance and understand how the servers can best respond to heavy workloads and what causes the failure during peak loads.

This article will help to understand and get an overview of service testing and the advantages behind conducting the testing.


Why is test services required?

Several advantages surround around the idea of server testing which justifies the need for investment of time and finances for this process. Firstly, the team becomes responsible and knowledgeable to understand the services and functions of them.

They can hence make observations and expose bugs immediately. It speeds up the performance and speed.

Secondly, before the developing work even begins, one can point out and understand the flaws of the service.

With the testing scripts, one can identify the bugs and flaws immediately before the issue is caused at latter stages. This henceforth helps saving time. Thirdly, these test scripts are enhanced faster than manual testing hence they require only seconds to understand complex issues.

They are consistent and allow teams to understand changes effectively and quickly. Since one can observe what is changed and what needs to be changed, the issues can be identified and corrected immediately.

Finally, server testing makes the tasks easier on part of the team leading to less time consumed to identify bugs and issues and also manually debug the problems.

What needs to be understood before doing Server Testing?

  • Time taking

Developing the process of server testing takes time in order to prepare and write scripts. However, one can be assured that the team can save rest lot of time in long run scenario.

  • Maintenance

It is not easy task to maintain scripts if any of the change. Hence maintenance issues exist and one needs to keep this on mind to avoid headache at later stages

  • Documentation

Appropriate service documentation is required to be able to write the scripts and develop the process.

Testing techniques

There are several testing techniques which can be useful while testing server programs. It is important to have effective techniques so as to identify bugs at early stage.

Since companies and brands also prefer to get their products to market as soon as possible, it helps to prioritize the risks and errors in engine and solve them.

First one among the techniques is risk driven testing. In risk driven testing, the tester will take the part of server or system he intends to test and examines the impact of errors and likelihood ratios.

This testing prioritizes potential errors in the service and probability of failure during testing processes.

Secondly, the performance testing is a method to test client and server programs. It evaluates and examines components of system such as software, parameters for performance and speed, resource utilization, time and transaction rates.

Due to its features, it is also called stress testing or load testing. But before performance testing an application, several issues should be known and understood beforehand such as, the number of users working on it simultaneously, stress felt on the server, peak user performance, function of the system during maximum workload timings and so on.

These information helps to understand workload stress on the server.  Later, the performance testing verifies scalability and reliability factors and can look into if the product can work according to the expectations or not for commercial use.

Further, this testing also helps to understand if any part of the program is causing trouble or delayed performance and comes up with a solution to the error.

Different types of Testing

There are types of testing which can be relevant for client server applications. These are the unit testing, integration testing and system testing.

Unit Testing

Unit is the smallest component which is testable in a program. It separates small parts of program and tests the individual parts or units separately to understand and prove if they work efficiently and correctly.

The documentation provides all required records of the test that can incorporate the characteristics which helps to make the unit successful. It also documents positive and negative uses of the unit and highlights the negative issues or errors which may trap the program.

However, the unit testing single handedly cannot test and catch all the bugs. It should be combined with other testing techniques since it is just a phase of three layer testing.

Integrated Testing

Integrated testing, otherwise called as I&T combines individual components and tests them as a group. They take components that the test has released and they test this input with a plan.

This output is hence an integrated system which can be then given for final layer of testing, which is, system testing. Hence the integration testing verifies the functionality, reliability, and performance of the server or system.

It shows if any inconsistencies are occurring between or within the components or groupings of the units which are integrated through testing plans and outputs.

System Testing

Finally, system testing is the layer of testing which is conducted after the system is integrated.

The input here is integrated elements which has passed integrated testing. System testing detects hence the inconsistencies, if any, between assemblages in the system. It is final testing and hence known to be aggressive.

It is known to be as destructive testing as it can run the system almost up to the point of failure. This testing covers reliability, usability, maintenance, performance and compatibility.

This article highlighted the benefits of server testing from both business and development angle.

Although it takes a while to maintain and make the time as initial investment, it totally helps to complete the projects at later stage more quickly and efficiently. It speeds up the development and helps ship better products.


The Gravity of Installation Testing: How to do it?

How would you feel if the software you are installing gets struck in the middle or just corrupts your operating system?
Awful right! Software installation is the first interaction of the user with the software.

Hence, the proper installation of software is very important to ensure end users satisfaction and trust. Installation testing ensures that the software is ready to deliver it to its end users without any issues in its installation process.
What is Installation Testing?
Implementation testing aka Installation testing is done to check the successful installation and to ensure that software is working as per the expectations. Carried out before the end user’s first interaction with the software, Installation testing is the last phase of software testing life cycle (STLC).
Basics of Implementation Testing
Before moving ahead it is important for us to know about the basic features of installation testing. Here are some important features of Installation testing, that we should know:

  • Software testing engineers carry it out in the presence of the configuration manager.
  • As stated earlier, it identifies and detects bugs and defects in the installation process.
  • Implementation testing is activity-based testing.
  • Installation testing is the last phase of STLC.
  • It is very important to ensure an ideal user experience.

How to do installation Testing?
Installation testing holds a very significant value in STLC. It is very important to carry it out properly so that it leaves no chances for any glitches.  You can ensure the smooth testing by following below given points.

  • Check for existing versions of the software and validate if the software installer checks for them too.
  • During installation validate if the software gives a choice to the user to specify the installation location and also offers a choice of the default location. Also, validate it installs the software in the specified location.
  • Validate the appropriate display of instructions on the installer.
  • Verify that software is easy to install from various locations like the internet, over the network, from the CD, etc.
  • Stop the installation process in between and check if the system returns to its original state.
  • Manually check for the disk space and then validate if the software installer calculated the disk space appropriately.
  • Validate software reactions for low disk space. Check if it responds accurately when the disk space is low.
  • Verify all the registry changes during the installation process.
  • One major part of installation testing is uninstallation testing. Validate while uninstalling the software, the system deletes all the related system files.

Today, software is available on various platforms, hence it is very important to validate their proper installation on different platforms. Though it is time-consuming, it is very important to ensure software is easy to install on various platforms.
Importance of Installation Testing
Thinking why is it important to spend time on Installation testing? Installation testing plays an important role in software testing life cycle. Here are some reasons proving its relevance:

Also Read: Agile Testing – An effective Software Testing Methodology

  • Installation is the first interaction of software and your prospective customer. Hence, proper installation is very important to make a good impression on your prospective customers.
  • Installation testing can help you to ensure complete coordination among various components of your software.
  • Apart from installation testing, uninstallation testing is also equally important. It ensures that all the related system files are deleted from the system freeing up all the occupied space of system memory.

Challenges in Installation Testing
Installation testing having a wide scope and being time-consuming; can be very challenging for you at times. Some of the common challenges that can incur are:

Also Read: Ad-hoc Testing: A Brief Note With Examples

  • The Installation test cases need to be run on the various environments with different configurations.
  • They need to be run under various system conditions.
  • It gets time-consuming to run of multiple test cases on different systems with various configurations.
  • There are no clear test models, tools and test coverage criterion for installation testing that can further increase the challenge.

Common Test Cases in Installation Testing
Test Cases are very important when doing software testing.  Same is the case with installation testing also. Here are few common test cases that can help you prepare your set of test cases.

  • There should be test cases for all workflows based on the requirement.
  • Include test cases to verify the already installed versions of the product and to verify to verify the path of the newer version.
  • Test cases for validating required Disk space are crucial.
  • Have test cases to validate all the messages to be displayed while installation.
  • Include test cases to check disk space, before and after installation.
  • Have Test cases to compare the files and packages of the previously installed version with the newly installed version.
  • Validating the changes in the registry is an important inclusion.
  • Forced stop of installation is another aspect that requires to be checked.
  • Include test cases to validate custom installation and default installation path.
  • Include test cases to test the installation process while similar software that uses a lot of RAM is also running.
  • Don’t forget to include test cases to test for insufficient memory and insufficient disk space.
  • Have test cases to check the installation process while the security is high and firewalls are ON.
  • Include test cases to test the time taken for installation.
  • Include test cases for successful uninstallation testing.

Keen check on each and every aspect of software development and testing is very important to provide enhanced customer experience. And Installation testing is one of the most important phases of STLC. So be very particular while performing installation testing on your product.

Testing a Restaurant Based App: Things To Remember

Importance of Mobile Applications in restaurant industry has become crucial since the arrival of food delivery apps like, Uber Eats, Swiggy etc.

Apart from them, there are apps which serve as the most important part of a restaurant management system.
Moreover, these apps enhances the image of a restaurant.
To get those much wanted five star ratings, an application needs to transcend these difficulties and convey high expectations under shifting states of utilization.
And to assure it, testing is required. To know more about the correct methodology of testing an app deployed in a restaurant habit, follow this blog.
Understand a Restaurant Mobile Application
Mobile development and innovation has radically changed the manner in which numerous organizations work.
The restaurant world is a sector in which mobile applications have a substantial impact, and one of the most surprising development rates compared with different fields.
The piece of the overall industry of restaurants related mobile applications, as of late, has developed altogether, raising the interest on restaurants mobile application development.
Making utilization of mobile applications, innovation can help restaurant proprietors set their quality in the market while at the same time helping them in advance for their images on the web.
Another key territory of focus for the future achievement of your restaurant application is building a mobile arrangement that will enhance your current restaurant service.
What does that mean? Your application ought to have the capacity to work in the background to make a remarkable visitor encounter for every client of yours.
It ought to be coordinated into your POS and kitchen ticketing framework, too.
This cooperative energy between two frameworks can enable guests to encounter better administration, generally speaking.
For instance, when a client makes a booking or request through your application, he or she will see his/her number in the line.
It will enable your visitors to utilize their time all the more proficiently and wipe out negative input, regardless of whether your laborers serve the requests with some deferrals.
So, What are Some of the Best Practices for Testing your Restaurant Mobile App?
When mobile application developers are completely done building up their versatile application, it’s possible that they are on edge and anxious to dispatch the item to the client.
In any case, before the dispatch of an application, it is shrewd to check whether the application is capable in performing crucial capacities, for example, downloading and execution.
The best work force to attempt this is the QA team as they are expected to examine on the guidelines of the mobile application.
This includes evaluating the similarity of the application with the current framework

During our time of practice, we have assembled certain best practices ideas, that, when pursued determinedly, can guarantee a mobile application that is genuinely adaptable.
1. Testing Methodology: Designing a testing master plan serves to set out specific rules which all testers are relied upon to pursue. This brings consistency in testing and guarantees sufficient test conclusions.
2. Test on Genuine Gadgets: While emulators and test systems are extremely valuable in testing in the beginning periods of advancement, the application should be tried adequately on real gadgets as well.
Testing on genuine gadgets guarantees test results are reasonable and gives the tester a superior thought with respect to the look and feel of the application and its general convenience.
3. Test Early and Test Frequently: Start testing when improvement has achieved a consistent stage. This distinguishes issues right on time before they turn out to be too expensive to settle. Track consequences of each test cycle.
4. Set Gadget and OS Inclinations: It may be practically difficult to test thoroughly on all gadget, system and OS blends. Decide forthright which gadgets and OS your application will particularly take into account and perform QA on them.
5. Computerize Testing: Automation enormously diminishes time to advertise and produces high ROI other than giving the advantage of repeatable testing. Yet, a critical factor to remember is cyclic upkeep of the automation test suite.
So, What’s Next?
There is nothing more regrettable than an application that heaps gradually or crashes every now and again.
Half of the clients who experience a bug stay away for the indefinite future. Choosing a fitting testing accomplice to develop with can have the effect among progress and disappointment for your restaurant application.
So how would you make a fruitful application for the restaurant business?
You simply need to take in your group of onlookers, characterize the most advantageous innovation, decide an arrangement of capacities, build up a cutting edge configuration, construct the application, and test it to guarantee it works appropriately.
In spite of the fact that it sounds like a considerable measure of work – and absolutely isn’t simple – upon completion, you will have a multipurpose answer that will build your salary in the present market that is peppered with a digital competition.

Also Read : How to Test a Music App like Spotify, YouTube Music etc.


CRM Testing : Goals, What and How to Test?

What is CRM?
CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is a marketing platform based on a database software system.
A database application is utilized for the accumulation and analysis of important customer information for use in executing focused marketing and sales process.

CRM framework is at the center of most companies. A surrey or inappropriately executed component in your CRM platform can directly affect how you comprehend your clients and, thus, do damage to your income.
On the other hand, a sufficiently built CRM can enable you to pick up consumer understanding and magnify consumer prosperity and build trust.
So it is obviously necessary to test the application before and after the deployment to ensure that it is doing what it is supposed to do.
Goals of CRM Testing
It very well can be hard to integrate and manage a CRM system for your unique framework while guaranteeing Omnichannel sales, big data integrity, and support-office segments, which is the reason many of the CRM ventures collapse.
Testing the CRM system lets you enhance client connections by guaranteeing CRM’s documentation, reporting and examining of data works perfectly over all channels, and furthermore encourages you with developments to the different integrating systems and channels.
Testing is the component of CRM testing that decides the accomplishment of your application venture.
It’s critical to comprehend what is being tested in this stage. It’s not the product.
You are trying the client’s capacity to utilize the product. This is a basic refinement that must be comprehended.
The objective in this stage is for the user to confirm to themselves – and to administration – so that they can carry out the activity that is supposedly from them.
At the point when this is accomplished for all users, the release of your new CRM platform and the procedure is fruitful.
The testing ought to incorporate a list of common, genuine scenarios. This ought to be scenarios where a worker needs to utilize the framework to discover data another person has left for them or needs to add information for another person to discover.
Here are a few cases of CRM testing scenarios:

  • A rep needs to characterize any circumstances they should think about before a consumer call.
  • A salesperson needs to decide their open opportunities.
  • An outside salesperson leaves an assignment for an internal salesperson to call a contact after a client visit.

Guidelines to Follow Before Initiating CRM Testing

  1. Create a testing team

At a fundamental level, you must include:

  • Application developer
  • Application analyst
  • Project manager
  • QA test engineer

Also, communication is the single thing which strives for a clear perception of user needs. For developing a quality CRM, the test process isn’t possible without feedback from every team indulged in testing and target users. Keep in mind that CRM test planning, strategy, and implementation rely on the relationship.

  1. Determine a CRM budget plan

The expense of failing to understand the situation can be high. From paying excessively for application to wasted team time to cover bespoke characteristics you can without much of a doubt can overspend.

If the project manager will not consider the full degree of implementation costs the process can become very costly. So, plan a budget for everything, including:

  • Consultancy Fees
  • Training
  • Phone costs
  • Data backup and storage
  • Reduced productivity
  • Review the payoff
  • Handle a risk assessment

3. Set Testing Deadlines
You’ve to be sure that you specify deadlines and ensure that every team member is aware of it. If you don’t specify it, then everybody will delay the task to the last moment and will prolong the testing process than you assigned.
Also, you should be sure you’ve set a plan for what you are testing every week and what you’ll be achieving.
4. Change Management
Incalculable change management standards exist to help battle the resistance, dread of disappointment, and poor communication that affects software executions. The buyer is the focal point of the business.
The testing stage is an extraordinary time to get tips on what individual’s zones are making your workers cope. During the testing process, track these issue zones and build them into training devices for your remaining representatives once the venture has been released.
The testing procedure provides your representatives the opportunity for taking risks and commits errors that they may be hesitant to in the live condition.
By allowing individuals to slip into it, your user compliance and adoption rate will be a lot more prominent, which is an objective of numerous CRM usages.
You can dispatch the most excellent technical platform; however, in case those individuals don’t utilize it, at that point it turns into a disappointment.
What to Test in CRM System?
A testing stage is normal for most of the significant software systems, even with the CRM software utilized by companies. Testing supports to identify mistakes and improve the utilization of the system. CRM testing is basic to the success of CRM activities.
There are essentially two general domains to test in a CRM system, they are – data quality and data conversion, and functionality. Apart from these two main domains, other testing processes also play a crucial role.
Let’s understand them in detail.
Data Quality & Data Conversion
The first test cycle centers around errors identified with data quality and data conversion. At each progression of a customer journey or update, you ought to confirm that the CRM is serving as desired both with and without information. Check the following:
No data duplication: Guarantee that no data is replicated as none is tolerable.
Hidden data remains hidden: Test only the proper data ought to be apparent to different customer roles.
No wrong fields populated: Check details of one exchange ought not to show up under the historical backdrop of another.
New and updated data saves well: Check card and customer data must be saved and updated legitimately.
No missing data: Test the requisite information ought to be accessible to the correct user levels.
Data Is being mapped rightly: Check the chosen fields must show up in the right gridlines.
Graphs depict all data accurately: Test that critical data is exact, like sales rates.
Data sorting done perfectly: Test every sortable field so that it functions as required.
The second cycle of testing concentrates on testing the functional features of the CRM platform.
Here are some common functional ranges and related scenarios of a CRM system that ought to be tested:
Access level: User permissions are running as wanted. Especially, non-admin users must not have access to any admin roles.
Connection dropped: For an Enterprise-grade CRM system if the connection between stores drops then cards must not operate and the correct error message surfaces.
Transaction upload: In case that the CRM integrates with a POS, next each of the customer’s purchase data must correctly update at the Point of Sale (POS) in just a couple of seconds.
Inadequate card balance: In case that the shopper does not have adequate balance in his card for completing order payment, so, he ought to be capable to pre-authorize for the value equal to balance accessible on the account and choose other payment option for the outstanding balance of the purchase transaction.
Card data: A customer’s card type or card number ought not to be agitated after the transaction has been made.
Transaction type: Users must be able to switch the transaction class before completing the transaction as well as transactions ought to be settled accurately after the change.
Pre-authorization: If a transaction fails when a card is pre-authorized, the payment bills ought not to print wrongly.
Data mismatch: Consumers with the similar first and last name must not trigger data mismatches and additional issues.
Department particular events: Any restraints on which businesses accept loyalty cards and gift are running as wanted.
Tax: All tax-related situations must work well on pre-authorizing and completing transactions incorporating canceled transactions.
Store-specific deals: Receipts are printing the right store label and address.
Other tests that too need to be performed during CRM testing cycle are:
Performance Testing
During this testing process, the system will work under stress or pressure or load. This can check the consequences of several users on the performance of the system. Some of the features that need to be tested are listed below:

  • Peak hours testing
  • The highest number of users
  • Response time
  • Server usage
  • Loading speed
  • Error with some integrated applications

Regression testing
There will also be a need for regression testing in the CRM system as there’s a demand to test post migration and pre-migration.
Post-migration is checked that if the values are populated into the right fields and validations are met with the data. Other areas must not be disrupted due to this.
This will check the functional accuracy and completeness of the CRM system. By doing the regression testing, the performance and authenticity of the system can be assured. Features that must be tested during this process are:

  • Functional completeness and accuracy
  • Confidentiality
  • Reliability
  • Scalability

Security Testing
CRM system comprises a high volume of private data that ought to be secured.
A right security test strategy supports how greatly the system preserves the data against unapproved external and internal access.

Also Read: Game Testing companies are in plenty. Know why testbytes is the best choice for you