8 Best Python Test Automation Framework

Python test automation framework ! Yes you have heard it right. Python has got framework that can be used for testing. Since the language is Python, regarded one of the most versatile language in the world, quirks of such framework is many. Some of them are,

  • The quality of the script of the framework
  • Easiness of test case
  • Method to execute modules

Considering the following points you can easily pick out the best framework for your purposes. Some of the commonly used python frameworks are;
1. Robot Framework

Robot framework is largely used for acceptance testing. It is counted among one of the best python framework. The robot is used in Python but it can run on .net-based IronPython and on Jython which is Java based.

The robot is compatible with various platforms including Windows, MacOS or Linux. Robot framework requires Python 2.7.14 or above. To run Robot you will also require ‘pip’ or python package manager. You should also download a development framework to use robot framework.
Advantages of Robot Framework

  • It helps testers to create readable test cases easily using keyword-driven-test approach.
  • Easy usability of Test data syntax
  • It allows using individual elements in separate projects.
  • Having numerous APIs is highly extensible.
  • Supports parallel running of tests via a Selenium Grid.

Disadvantages of Robot Framework

  • Creating customized HTML reports using Robot can be very tricky.
  • Not enough support for parallel testing.

2. Pytest Framework

Pytest Framework
Pytest can assist in test automation of all kinds of software testing. It is easy to learn, open source Python-based framework extensively used by QA teams.
Its veteran features like ‘assert rewriting’; it is being extensively adopted by testers worldwide. Using python does not require any specific prerequisites except for working knowledge of Python. Apart from this, you should also have a python package manager, command line interface, and an IDE.
Advantages of Pytest Framework         

  • Supports compact test suits.
  • Unlike other tools, Pytest does not require debugger or explicitly checking the logs.
  • Supports easy creation of test cases.
  • Pytest allows the use of multiple fixtures.
  • Pytest is extensible by using plugins
  • It offers easy and fewer bugs prone development of test cases.

Disadvantages of Pytest Framework        
The main issue with pytest is the compatibility issue. It does not allow using the test cases written in pytest to be shared with other frameworks.
3. PyUnit/UnitTest Framework
PyUnit/UnitTest FrameworkUnittest or PyUnit is a unit testing Python framework. In the PyUnit framework, the base class TestCase provides assertion methods and the cleanup and setup routines. The methods name starts with “test” in the subclass of TestCase to allow them to execute as test cases.
For the grouping and loading of tests, it supports the load methods and the TestSuite class. It also supports XML reports and unittest-sml-reporting. PyUnit comes with Python by default.
Advantages of PyUnit/UnitTest Framework         

  • No additional module is required to be installed.
  • It is easy to work even for people with no high-end knowledge of Python
  • It offers simple and flexible executing test cases execution.
  • Quick generation of test reports.

Disadvantages of PyUnit/UnitTest Framework

  • The snake_case naming method of python codes and camelCase naming method of JUnit causes confusion.
  • Unclear intent of the test code.
  • Requires boilerplate code.

4. Behave Framework

Behave allows software teams to run BDD testing without any difficulties. It is similar to SpecFlow and Cucumber. Behave allows writing test cases in easily readable language.
Behave requires Python 2.7.14 or any above version, Python package manager or pip, and any IDE like Pycharm or other.
Advantages of Behave Framework

  • Easy coordination among the teams and easy execution of all kinds of test cases.
  • Promotes detailed Reasoning and thinking
  • Clarity of QAs and Devs output.

Disadvantages of Behave Framework

5. Lettuce Framework

It is a behavior driven automation tool that is easy to use and it getting highly popular for BDD testing. It is based on Python and cucumber. It makes the process simpler and entertaining by its BDD approach. Lettuce requires Python 2.7.14 or any above version, Python package manager or pip, and any IDE like Pycharm or other.
Advantages of Lettuce Framework

  • It uses simple language and allows developers to create more than one scenario.
  • Supports cooperation among Dev and QA teams.
  • Helps in running behaviour driven tests cases for black box testing.

Disadvantages of Lettuce Framework
It required strong coordination and communication among developers, testers, and stakeholders.
6. RedwoodHQ Framework

The RedwoodHQ framework lets multiple testers to connect in a single web location to execute the tests simultaneously. It supports complete automation and management of software testing.
REdwoodHQ supports action keyword enabling creating test cases quickly and easily. Supports writing test cases in Python and other languages such as C#, Java, etc. It has an inbuilt IDE.
It helps in easy creation, modification, and execution of test cases. It records a history of all the test runs for future references.
Advantages of RedwoodHQ Framework

  • It is a very user-friendly framework
  • Supports parallel testing
  • Compatible with continuous integration tools such as Jenkins and TeamCity.
  • Suitable for front-end and back-end testing
  • Supports the parallel running of test cases
  • Helps testing teams to easily create and modify the tests.

7. Jasmine Framework
Jasime is a behaviour driven development (BDD) framework. It supports Python as well as Ruby and JavaScript unit test automation. It combines the server-client unit testing. To run Jasmine you are required to have Karma tests runner.
Advantages of Jasmine Framework

  • Supports both asynchronous and DOM-less test cases.
  • Simple, user-friendly and readable syntax
  • Parallel execution of server and client side test cases
  • No external dependencies
  • Available in a ready-to-use state
  • Active community for support issues.

Disadvantage of Jasmine Framework

  • More stress on applications of business value than the technical details.

8. Gauge framework

Gauge is an impeccable tool made from the same team that made Selenium. Since Gauge is an open source framework, there are plenty of quirks in using it. If you wish to integrate continuous testing into CI/CD pipeline, Gauge is one of the best options. Gauge is nowadays gaining lots of momentum owing to its cross-browser testing functionality.
Advantages of Gauge framework

  • Supports variety of plug-in such as java runner, c# runner, Ruby runner, JavaScript runner, Golang runner, Python runner, IDE plugins, Reports, build management etc.
  • Supports all major programming language including Python
  • Command line support
  • Defects can be quickly detected
  • Easy to write test cases
  • Cross browser tests can be automated
  • Scalability of product requirement across QA, Dev and business teams.


  • Relatively young. Will take time to evolve

How to pick the best test automation framework?
In large a good test automation framework should have best

  • Scripts
  • Test cases
  • Assumptions
  • Techniques to run every module and code
  • High capability to detect the flaws and weaknesses.

But every project is different and might require one or more of the above parameters. So while selecting the best framework for test automation considers the following points:

  • Resource it requires
  • It’s functionalities
  • Test drivers that it includes.
  • Reporting features
  • Integration with third-party tools

It is better to break the project into smaller modules and then look out for the best fit. Not to ignore your budget. You need to consider your budget and then look out for a framework that offers maximum benefits and features for your project.
What to look for in a testing automation framework?
The framework helps in automating your testing process while reducing the manual efforts and making the testing process faster and more efficient. When looking out for an expert framework for your testing requirements consider the following points:

  • The capability of the framework to justify your testing needs
  • Ease of use
  • Library with reusable components
  • Maintenance overheads
  • Integrating with other tools and frameworks
  • Functionalities of your framework
  • Integration with the third-party tools
  • Complexity
  • Features of the framework
  • Support and Maintenance features
  • Triggering automatically without requiring human intervention
  • Stability, flexibility, and extensibility
  • Report creations

There are just the generic points you might consider before picking up a framework for your testing process. On a larger picture, developer’s requirements, an application under test, environment and more play a more important role in selecting the best framework for your requirements.

Now when we are acquainted with various python frameworks, choosing the best one could be a tricky task. Though all of them are good and serves different requirements. It is best to take a note of all your requirements and then pick the framework that fulfils your maximum requirements.

Test Automation Frameworks: Future of Software Testing

With the advent of new technologies and strategies for web applications, the time taken to write and deploy programs reduced tremendously. In such scenarios, nowadays most of the testing is also done by the developers themselves. As a result there were many code based test automation platforms that were brought into the market.
automation testing
Test automation framework is a common platform for developers to provide an execution environment for test scripts. Every framework has its unique guidelines, procedures and rules for test creation and implementation. There is hundreds of automation frameworks developed over the years by various automation communities. But developers and organizations find it difficult to understand and decide which framework to choose and why.
Not to forget, automation framework is not a tool to perform your tests, but rather its an infrastructure that defines what different systems can do their tasks and how efficiently.
Test Framework Designing
Any proposed test automation platform should provide rules and guidelines that help you to create test cases. The framework should be user friendly and allow the team to get desired results for the tests. Such automated frameworks should improve the quality life of QA professionals by making their testing activities more fun and efficient.
For examples, the following guidelines can be followed in your framework.

  • Standards for coding
  • Repositories of objects
  • Test data methodologies
  • saving and storing results
  • Any other external assistance

Benefits of Employing Automated Frameworks
So how will you known that automated frameworks is working for you? Well, if your framework provides the following benefits, then b rest assured that you’ve got your framework right on the track.

  • Low cost of maintenance
  • Consistency in testing
  • Creating reusable code
  • minimizing manual intervention
  • Distinctive Programmability and Shelf Life

Automated frameworks can bring a lot of benefits to your testing life cycle. Many organizations still prefer and run manual tests because they are unaware about properly integrating automated tests in their development process.
Below are test automation frameworks approaches that are widely used in industries.
Data Driven Framework
Data Driven framework is the most used test automation software in the market today. The method follows a process where test cases are built in an excel sheet and then it is imported into the automation testing tool.  Data driven framework allows building positive, as well as negative test cases in one go.
Many a times there might seem a need to have a number of data sets for the same single functionality and running different data manually is very time consuming. In such cases, data driven framework comes as a saver. For e.g. when we want to test multiple fields of forms like login/register/signup etc. we don’t create separate data sets.
Linear Automation Framework
Also known as ‘Record and Playback’, this is one of the simplest frameworks of all. In this framework, the manual tester manually records all the steps including navigation and user inputs, and inserts checkpoints. He can then play back the recorded script in subsequent rounds.
Linear automation framework is the fastest way to generate scripts. You do not require automations experts to perform the tests. The testing tools are very easy to use and understand.
Table Driven Framework
Table driven testing, also known as keyword driven testing, is a framework famous for its use to both manual as well as automation testing. The framework is based on the idea of using data files that contain keywords related to the application that is being tested. These keywords define a set of actions required to carry out a particular function.
Keywords are of 2 types, high-level and low-level keywords.  Hence before you opt for this framework, you first define the set of keywords and then associate them to a set of actions or functions.
Modular Based Testing Framework
The most basic type of automation framework that is used today is the modular based testing framework. In this framework, each business module and functionality is separated out and taken care of separately. Hence it is also called the ‘Test Script Modularity Framework.

Also read : A Beginner’s Guide to iOS Automation Testing

The testing framework requires creating of small, independent scripts that depict the working of the modules, functions and sections under test. This small tests are then clubbed together to create a larger test to construct a bigger module.
Library Architecture Testing Framework
Library Architecture Testing Framework initially works by Linear automation framework, which follows the ‘Record and Playback’ system. At a later stage, the results and identified and grouped together into various functions. These functions are then called from the main script and used in different cases.
app testing
Similar to the modular framework, this framework will provide higher level of modularization, which makes maintenance and scalability easier and more cost effective. The only drawback includes that this framework requires a higher level of expertise to analyse the common functions of the test cases.
Hybrid Testing Framework
As the name suggests, hybrid framework inculcates 2 or more testing frameworks from the above list. The best thing about this framework is that it offers you all the benefits provided by different testing frameworks.
Hybrid framework is a component based architecture that will give you reusable components that are designed to be re-used in different aspects. However, some components are designed only for a specific task.
The best approach for implementing a framework is to find the right tool which quickly adapts to your processes. While selecting an automation framework, look for the one that is flexible and supports a wide range of languages and third party applications. This will allow your team to save a lot of time and contribute to their testing efforts.
When you think about implementing the hybrid framework, remember, there are times when there is a requirement of a standard framework for tests. During a situation when there are multiple modules of an application and there are more number of developers involved who encompass their own idea of implementing automation,a single framework is your life saver.