75 Must Read Test Lead Interview Questions

Test lead interview questions

Are you looking forward to the Test Lead interview you are going to attend? then you must have a look at our blog, 75 Test Lead interview questions For A better Job

Important Test Lead interview questions you must read first!

  • You will be asked about the project life cycle and development model that’s in practice your company
  • What’s going to be your action if management decided to approve a release with critical defects?
  • Why do you use the testing tools that you are using now?
  • How do you decide whether you have enough test cases to test a module
  • How do you test a search engine
  • Difference between UAT and system testing
  • How do you use selenium for code validation?
  • How do you reverse INT and double number?
  1. Describe the key responsibilities of a Test lead.

Must be able to guide his team members, manage the tests team effectively, identify the scope of testing required and its related tools, and create a fun and learning environment for juniors.

  1. Mention the key challenges of Software Testing.

Key challenges may include:

  • Testing phase under a time constraint
  • Regression Testing
  • The application must be stable to run tests
  • Lack of tools, resources, and training for the testers
  1. Mention different types of testing methods.

There are 3 basic methods-

Black-Box Testing: No in-depth knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation is required.

White-Box Testing: Core and in-depth knowledge of internal paths, structures, and implementation are required.

, and Grey-Box Testing: Limited knowledge would suffice to detect and debug the software.

  1. Difference between functional and non-functional testing.

Functional testing is done before non-functional based on the client’s requirements and describes what a product does. Non-functional testing is based on the client’s expectations and tells how the product works.

  1. Mention the benefits of Automated Testing.

Cost-saving, fast Development, and Delivery of products, higher productivity, effective and efficient use of resources, support repeated test cases execution, improves accuracy.

  1. What is usability testing?

It is a type of testing methodology where a user is asked to use the product to check whether the software is easy to use, its task loading time, and to understand the customer’s perception.

  1. Describe how Testing is affected by Object-Oriented Programming.

Makes it easier for testers to trace the requirements from code to internal paths to functional designs.

  1. How to use WebDriver for launching the different browsers?

A common syntax can be used;

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

  1. List some best effective Software Quality Assurance practices.

It may include-

  • Unhindered improvement
  • Proper and precise documentation
  • Usage of best tools and resources
  1. Describe the testing strategies you have found to be most effective?

Following are the testing strategies I have found to be the most effective ones to achieve the main objective:

  • Unit testing
  • System Integration Testing
  • Deployment Testing
  • Alpha Testing
  • Beta and User Acceptance Testing
  1. What do you understand by Requirements Traceability Matrix?

RTA is a table format document required to determine the level of testing through relation comparison between two baselined documents and details the technical requirements for all applications fulfilled in the verification process.

  1. Explain the types of test plans?

Some of the types are:

  • Level-specific test plans– it addresses any one phase of the testing approach
  • Specific Type test plans– it is designed for non-functional testing like security testing, loading testing, etc.
  • Master test plans– It’s a complete test approach
  1. What is the difference between Verification and Validation in Software Testing?

Verification It is a static testing process to check if the application achieves its goals without any bugs

Validation It is a dynamic testing process to determine whether the product we are developing is the right product and meets the client’s requirements.

  1. While running a test on a project, what are the risks to be avoided?

The risks can be categorized as-

  • Strategic Risks
  • Project Defining Risks
  • Human Resources Risks
  • Project Estimation and Scheduling Risks
  1. What are the measures you have used against such risks?

The following can be practiced to avoid the risks-

Avoidance– Eliminate the possible risks

Reduction– Alleviate plan to mitigate the impact of the risks and take valid measures

Sharing– Outsource the risk to other resources

Acceptance– Accept and prepare the planned budget for the risks

  1. What are the categories of bugs?

Three prime defects categories are-

Wrong- It states that requirements are varying from the given specifications.

Missing- it implies that a specification isn’t implemented or noted properly.

Extra- It indicates a requirement has been implemented into the product that wasn’t given by the client.

  1. What are the practices you have used to minimize the impact of defects?
  • Discover the type of defect
  • Prioritize the categories of defects to simplify the tasks
  • Get the skilled developers to fix the defects
  • Verification process by testers
  • Once resolved and verified, change defect status to closed
  • Prepare and send the defects reports to a management team for feedback
  1. How can you arrive at a test estimation on a project?

The answer to the ‘how’ part involves-

Create basic test scenarios

Get an idea of the number of test cases to work on

Include buffer time

Identify their complexities

  1. What is a Three-point estimation?

It is a technique used to determine the approximate profitable distribution that defines the outcomes of future events. Three-values can be determined by-

  • Best case estimate
  • Most-likely estimate
  • Worst-case scenario estimate
  1. What are the stages involved in the software testing life cycle?

Following are the STLC phases one should consider-

  • Product requirement analysis
  • Test planning
  • Prepare test case development
  • Set up a testing environment
  • Execute testing on the prepared test cases
  • Test closure
  1. What steps do you follow to create a test script?

There are three ways you can test script-

  • Record/playback by writing any code in a simplified language like VBScript
  • Keyword or data-driven test scripting
  • Writing code using Programming Languages like JScript, Ruby, Java, etc.
  1. What do you understand by PDCA and how do you use it?

it is a Test Process Involvement Method explained for Plan, Do, Correct and Act and is used to help testers improve future processes and strategic implementation.

  1. What is test coverage and its types of techniques?

It is a parameter used to describe the scope of source code testing. The basic techniques include- Statement, Decision, and path coverage.

  1. Describe Manual Support and Manual Scripted testing.

Manual Support testing– It is a process where a QA analyst manually executes the test cases to identify bugs and generate reports.

Manual Scripted Testing- It involves 3 steps- Execution, Reporting, & Information. This sequential method is used to review and design the test cases before executing them.

  1. On what grounds can you map the success of Automation testing?

It can be mapped by-

  • Detecting defects ratio
  • Automated testing execution time
  • Assign professionals
  • Reduction in costs where possible
  1. Name the commonly used Automation Testing tools.

Some of the tools are- Selenium, Appium, Katalon Studio, Cucumber, HPE UFT, SoapUI, TestComplete, QA Wolf, and much more.

  1. How to select a testing tool?

Understand the project requirements, Use your current testing tool as a standard one, Determine salient criteria suitable for the product.

  1. Name the test cases that can be automated.

Smoke test, Regression Test, Data-driven, Non-functional, and Complex Calculation test cases.

  1. Difference between Regression and Confirmation testing.

Regression Testing To ensure that a change in recent code doesn’t affect existing characteristics.

Confirmation Testing– Or re-testing is a process of introducing a new version of software whose defect is fixed.

  1. What is BVA?

Boundary Value Analysis is a black-box testing technique used to check whether there are any bugs at the edge of the input domain.

  1. What should a good test report include?

Detailed project information, test objectives, and classifications explained test briefly, and defect reports if any.

  1. What are the basic defect report format components?

They may include- Project name, module name, defect detected on and by, Unique Defect ID and Name, defect snapshot, Priority and Severity status, Defect resolved on and by.

  1. Compare Agile Testing with Traditional testing?

Traditional Testing follows a phased testing approach where unit testing is performed for each module without any tools. It is time-consuming and more costly. Agile Testing follows an iterative approach along with an adaptive model where the bugs are fixed during testing using automated tools and then released.

  1. What is the command to click on hyperlink using linkText()?

The command is as follows-

driver.findElement(By.linkText(& ldquo; Google& rdquo)).click();

  1. What is Defect cascading?

When a defect goes unnoticed while performing tests it invokes other defects due to which multiple defects arise in the later stages.

  1. What method to use when there is no frame id and frame name?

If such the case is, we can approach fame by index. The syntax would go like this-

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);

  1. Mention a difference between Beta and Pilot Testing.

Beta Testing is User Acceptance Testing which is performed in the development environment after the product launch to minimize the failure risks. Pilot testing is done before launching a product in a real environment.

  1. Describe Configuration Management.

It determines the tools, including source code, test scripts, hardware, third-party software, and development and testing documentation to establish the consistency of a product.

  1. What would be your strategy if you find that the testers in your company are performing deliverables even after a potential defect has been detected?

The acceptance pattern should be strict, test cases must be revised and added more to check the ineffectiveness, and the show-stopper bar should be improved as compromising the company’s quality is not acceptable.

  1. What is Load Testing on websites?

The QA engineers need to multiply the number of responses a user is getting when sending a request to that site’s server to simulate different traffic loads.

  1. Describe TestNG.

It is an advanced testing framework designed with an inbuilt exception of handling mechanism which helps the program to run without terminating suddenly.

  1. How will you skip a method or a code block in TestNG?

We can set the ‘enabled’ parameter in test observation to false using the below format-


  1. How would you find out the quality of the test execution?

There are two ways to determine it-

  • Defect Rejection ratio: (No. of defects rejected/total no. of defects raised)*100
  • Defect Leakage ratio: (No.of defects missed/total defects of software)*100
  1. Acceptance plan is prepared on what basis?

Requirement documents, input from the customer, and project planning determine the acceptance plan.

  1. Describe XPath.

Also known as XML Path is a language to query XML docs. One can easily write a query in XPath script to locate elements in a webpage. It also generates reliable locators.

  1. What is Absolute Xpath?

It is a better and more direct way to find the element but if you make any changes in the path of the element then that XPath gets failed. For instance, /html/body/div[1]/section/div[1]/div

  1. What is Relative XPath?

The path starts from the middle of the HTML DOM pattern and begins with the forward double slash (//) which signifies that you can search the element anywhere on the webpage.

  1. How will you handle the conflicts between teams?

Since the team members are from diverse backgrounds and different working styles, the key step as a Team Manager would be open communication for all to understand better and work together which also minimizes the frustration within the team.

  1. What are the skills required to be a test manager?

A positive and practical approach, maintain a decent relation with fellow workers and motivate them, a leader with a creative and problem-solving attitude and understand the priorities when working.

  1. What do you expect while working with us, if hired?

A friendly yet professional, positive work environment, flexible working hours that your Company offers, job stability, and an opportunity to grow and hone my skills with the company.

   51. How do you handle a situation where there is a conflict between the testing team and the development team?

Effective communication, collaboration, and understanding each other’s perspectives are key to resolving conflicts.

   52. Can you explain the importance of test data in the testing process?

Test data is crucial for validating the functionality of the application under various scenarios and conditions. It helps ensure comprehensive test coverage.

   53. What are the key factors to consider when creating a test environment for a project?

Hardware and software compatibility, data availability, network configurations, and cloning production environment are essential considerations.

  54. How do you prioritize test cases when time is limited?

Prioritization is based on risk, critical functionality, and business impact. Focus on high-priority areas to ensure the most critical aspects are thoroughly tested.

55. Explain the concept of continuous testing in the software development life cycle.

Continuous testing involves automated testing throughout the development process, ensuring quick feedback on code changes and maintaining software quality.

56. What role does exploratory testing play in your testing strategy?

Exploratory testing is used to discover defects in an unscripted manner. It complements scripted testing and helps identify issues that might be missed in traditional testing.

57. How do you keep your testing team motivated during a challenging project?

Motivation comes from recognizing achievements, providing a positive work environment, and addressing team concerns promptly. Regular feedback and acknowledgment are essential.

58. Can you share an example of a successful test automation implementation in a project?

Describe a scenario where test automation significantly improved efficiency, reduced testing time, or enhanced test coverage in a project. Quote such instances from your personal experiences. Be prepared with a couple of such scenarios.

59. What strategies do you employ to ensure effective communication within the testing team?

Regular team meetings, clear documentation, and utilizing collaboration tools can facilitate effective communication among team members.

60. How do you ensure that the testing process aligns with the project timeline?

Thorough planning, realistic estimations, and continuous monitoring of progress are essential to ensure that testing activities stay on track with the project timeline.

61. What steps do you take to stay updated with the latest testing tools and technologies?

Regularly attend conferences, webinars, and workshops, subscribe to industry publications, and encourage team members to share knowledge on emerging trends.

62. Can you explain the significance of risk-based testing in the testing life cycle?

Risk-based testing involves prioritizing test cases based on the likelihood and impact of failure, ensuring that testing efforts focus on areas with higher risks.

63. How do you handle testing in a project with frequent changes in requirements?

Agile testing methodologies, continuous collaboration with stakeholders, and maintaining flexible test cases are crucial in adapting to evolving project requirements.

64. Describe a situation where you had to make a tough decision as a Test Lead. How did you handle it?

Provide an example of a challenging decision you made, the factors considered, and the outcomes, showcasing your leadership and decision-making skills. Always make sure to be prepared to answer such personal experiences based questions before going for an interview.

65. What strategies do you employ to foster a culture of continuous learning within the testing team?

Encourage team members to participate in training programs, allocate time for skill development, and promote knowledge sharing within the team.

 66. How do you ensure that test cases are reusable for future projects?

Designing modular and well-documented test cases, using automation frameworks, and maintaining a centralized repository of test cases can contribute to reusability.

 67. Can you explain the role of risk analysis in test planning?

Risk analysis helps identify potential challenges, prioritize testing efforts, and allocate resources effectively to areas with higher risks in the test plan.

  68. Describe a scenario where you had to deal with a critical production issue related to testing. How did you handle it?

Share an experience where you addressed a critical issue affecting production, emphasizing your problem-solving and crisis management skills.

69. What metrics do you use to measure the effectiveness of the testing process?

Metrics such as defect density, test coverage, and test pass rate can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the testing process.

 70. How do you ensure the security testing of an application is comprehensive?

Comprehensive security testing involves identifying potential vulnerabilities, implementing penetration testing, and staying informed about the latest security threats and measures.

 71. Can you discuss the role of test documentation in ensuring the traceability of testing activities?

Test documentation, such as test plans and test cases, plays a crucial role in tracing testing activities back to project requirements, ensuring thorough coverage and validation.

   72. What measures do you take to ensure the confidentiality of sensitive data during testing?

Implementing data masking techniques, securing test environments, and establishing strict access controls are crucial to safeguard sensitive data during testing.

   73. How do you handle a situation where a critical defect is discovered late in the testing process?

Address the importance of effective communication with stakeholders, assessing the impact, and collaborating with the development team to expedite the resolution.

 74. What strategies do you employ to ensure test coverage for mobile applications across various devices and platforms?

Utilizing mobile testing frameworks, leveraging cloud-based testing services, and maintaining a diverse device and platform matrix contribute to comprehensive mobile test coverage.

75. Can you share an experience where your testing efforts contributed to significant cost savings for the project?

Highlight a situation where thorough testing prevented the identification of defects in later stages, resulting in cost savings for the project.

All the best!

Hope you liked our compilation of Test Lead interview questions. We wholeheartedly wish you all the best for your future.